THE REPORTED SPEECH

Direct Speech gives the exact words someone said. We use inverted commas in Direct Speech. e.g. "It's a nice day," he said. Reported Speech gives the exact meaning of what some-one said but not the exact words. We do not use inverted commas in Reported Speech. e.g. He said it was a nice day.

REPORTED STATEMENTS
• • They are usually introduced with say (that) or tell (that). a) “It is hot in here”, she said.- she said it was hot there. - B) “I saw you with Ana”, She told me. - she told me she saw me / had seen me with Ana. Personal pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to context:" I really love you”, she told me. _ She told me she really loved me.

TENSES CHANGE WHEN…
Present simple Present continuous Simple past / present perfect Past continuous / present perfect continuous Future simple Future continuous Past perfect and past perfect continuous Past simple Past continuous Past perfect Past perfect continuous Would + bare infinitive Would + be + ing. No change

TENSES DO NOT CHANGE WHEN
• • If there is a time clause in the reported sentence. When the reporting verbs: say, tell, etc. Is in present, future or present perfect. • When the speakers expresses general truths, permanent states or conditions • In type 2, type 3 conditionals, in wishes or unreal past. • When reporting up to date events (Things immediately said)

REPORTED QUESTIONS
• They are introduced by: ask, wonder, inquire, want to know etc • Affirmative word order is used. • We use (if) to report a question introduced with an auxiliary.

REPORTED COMMANDS / SUGGESTIONS / REQUESTS

• We use advise, ask, beg, suggest, etc followed by a (to infinitive), an ing form or a that clause. • Please be careful. / Do not smoke in here. / You should visit your doctor. / could you do me a favor? / do your homework and don’t watch TV. / Why don’t you practice harder?

MODAL VERBS IN REPORTED SPEECH
• The following verbs change in Reported Speech when the reported sentence is out of date: • will/shall 4 would, can 4 could (present reference)/ would be able to (future reference), may 4 might/could, shall 4 should (asking for advice)/would (asking for information)/offer (expressing offers), must 4 must/had to (obligation) (must remains the same when it expresses possibility or deduction),

SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY VERBS
• • • • • • • • • • advise sb + to infinitive accuse sb of + -ing form admit (to) + -ing form apologise for + -ing form boast + that -clause Suggest + that clause Claim + that clause Complain + that clause Demand + that clause Deny + ing encourage sb + to -infinitive

• • • • •

Inform + that clause Insist + that clause Promise + to infinitive Refuse + to infinitive Remind SB + to infinitive • Threaten + to infinitive • Warn SB + to infinitive

Write an introductory verb and report the sentences

Punctuation practice
• Id like to talk to you for a minute he said • What asked Paul you are married • Shut up exclaimed anne angrily stop telling lies. Ill never believe you. • Martin whose real name is thom sells jewels houses used cars and other stuff • Love he said softly is the best thing that could ever happen to me

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