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Quality Concepts
Quality is not an art, it is a habit —Aristotle

Charantimath

Total Quality Management

Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd

After studying this chapter. you should be able to:    Understand various definitions and importance of quality Describe different types and levels of quality Explain Five Paradigms of quality   Understand eight dimensions of product quality and determinants of service quality Describe the difference between old quality and new quality  Understand the cost of poor quality Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Learning Objectives .

Motorola) 1988 Zero defects (Crosby 1979) Meeting and Exceeding present and future requirements of customer on a continuous basis (Charantimath) Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Common Definitions of Quality .     Conformance to requirements (Crosby 1979) Fitness for use (Juran 1979) Continual improvement (Deming 1982) As defined by the customers (Ford 1984. 1990) Loss to Society (Taguchi 1987)    Six sigma (Harry and Stewart.

   The Transcendent approach The product based approach The user based approach   The manufacturing based approach The value based approach Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Five Approaches to Defining Quality .

develop and implement a product or service are effective and efficient with respect to the system and its performance. quality assurance. quality improvement. but also the means to achieve it.Quality management It is a method for ensuring that all the activities necessary to design. Quality management is focused not only on product quality. Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Quality Management . Quality management can be considered to have three main components: quality control.

Quality increases profits in addition to image of the company.9% of the time means:     One hour of unsafe drinking water per month Two unsafe landings at O’Hare Airport each day 16.000 lost pieces of mail per hour 20.000 incorrect drug prescriptions per year    500 incorrect surgical operations per week 50 newborn babies dropped each day by doctors 22. Things done right 99.000 missed heartbeats per person each year Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Importance of Quality .000 checks per hour deducted from wrong accounts  32.

Profit Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Quality and Profit .Quality –Fitness for use Quality of design Product features Quality of conformance Freedom from deficiencies Quality of performance .

   Quality of Design Quality of Conformance Quality of Performance Classification of Quality:     Indifferent quality Expected quality One-dimensional quality Exciting quality Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Types of Quality .

  Organizational level Process level  The performer/job level/task design level Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Three Levels of Quality .

     Customer-Craft Paradigm Mass Production Paradigm Statistical Quality Control Paradigm Total Quality Management Paradigm Techno-Craft Paradigm Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Five Paradigms of Quality .

       Performance Features Reliability Conformance Durability Serviceability Aesthetics  Perceived quality. Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Dimensions of Product Quality .

     Reliability Assurance Tangibles Empathy Responsiveness Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Dimensions of Service Quality .

Old Quality (Little ―q‖) About products Technical Led by experts About control New Quality (Big ―Q‖) About organisation Strategic Led by management About improvement Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Old Quality Vs New Quality .

Quality Costs CONFORMANCE NON-CONFORMANCE PREVENTION APPRAISAL INTERNAL FAILURE EXTERNAL FAILURE Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Cost of Quality .

Costs Zone of improvement projects 100% Defective Zone of indifference Quality of conformance Optimum Zone of high appraisal costs 100% Good Total quality cost curve Prevention & Appraisal costs Failure costs ECL ECL= Economic conformance level Conformance level Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Total Quality Cost Curve .

Defect Rate Sporadic loss Chronic loss Optimal Zero defects Time Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Sporadic and Chronic Quality Problems .

   Cost bases measured by cost ratio Sales bases measured by sales ratio Labour/Wage bases measured by labour ratio  Unit/ Number bases measured by unit ratio Charantimath Total Quality Management Copyright© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt Ltd Quality Cost Indices .