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# OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

## An operational amplifier or OP AMP

is a very high gain differential
amplifier with high input impedance
and low output impedance.
A basic OP AMP has 2 input and 1 output
-
+
V
O ,
OUTPUT

2
3
6
+ V
CC
4
7
- V
CC
INPUT
1
5
OP-AMP LM741 IC Pin Assignment
NULL OFFSET 1
INVERTING INPUT
NONINVERTING INPUT
- V
cc
NULL OFFSET 2
Output
+V
cc

COMP 1
2
3
4
8
7
6
5
LM 741 OP AMP IC PIN ASSIGNMENT
Single ended Input operation results when the
input signal is connected to one input and
with the other input is connected to the
ground.
SINGLE ENDED INPUT
-
+
V
O
2
3
6
+ V
CC
4
7
- V
CC
Grounded
SINGLE ENDED INPUT
1 2
V V V
d
=
A double-ended input can be designed
using a single input or using double
inputs
DOUBLE ENDED INPUT
DOUBLE ENDED INPUT
WITH
SINGLE INPUT
-
+
V
O
2
3
6
+ V
CC
4
7
- V
CC
V
d
Single input
DOUBLE ENDED INPUT
WITH
DOUBLE INPUT
-
+
V
O
2
3
6
+ V
CC
4
7
- V
CC
V
2
V
1
TWO INPUTS
For the double input circuit the supplied
voltage is equal to the difference between
the two input signals.
1 2
V V V
d
=
DOUBLE ENDED INPUT
DIFFERENTIAL INPUT
When separate inputs are applied to the op-
amp, the resulting difference signal is the
difference between the two inputs.
2 1
V V V
d
=
COMMON INPUT
When both input signals are the same, a
common signal element due to the two inputs
can be defined as the average of the sum of
the two signals.
( )
2 1
2
1
V V V
C
=
OUTPUT VOLTAGE
The resulting output voltage of any op-amp can
be defined as,
c c d d O
V A V A V + =
Where, A
d
= Differential gain of the amplifier
A
c
= Common-mode gain of the amplifier
OPPOSITE POLARITY INPUTS
If an ideal opposite polarity inputs, V
1
= Vs and
V
2
= Vs are applied to an op-amp,
The resulting differential voltage, V
d
is defined as
( )
s S s d
V V V V 2 = =
OPPOSITE POLARITY INPUTS
The resulting common voltage, V
c
is defined as
( ) | | 0
2
1
= + =
s s c
V V V
So, the resulting output voltage, V
o
is,
s d o
V A V 2 =
SAME POLARITY INPUTS
If an ideal same polarity inputs are applied to
an op-amp V
1
= V
2
= V
S

The resulting differential voltage, V
d
is defined as
( ) 0 = =
S s d
V V V
SAME POLARITY INPUTS
The resulting common voltage, V
c
is defined as
( ) | |
s s s c
V V V V = + =
2
1
So, the resulting output voltage, V
o
is,
s c o
V A V =
COMMON MODE REJECTION RATIO
Having obtained A
d
and A
c
, we can now
calculate a value for the common-mode rejection
ratio (CMRR), which is defined by the following
equation,
c
d
A
A
CMRR =
c
d
A
A
CMRR log 20 (log) = or
TYPICAL VALUE FOR LM741
Open loop voltage gain A
VOL
2 X 10
5

Slew Rate SR 0.5 V/s
Full Power Bandwidth f
PL
~ 6 kHz
Gain Bandwidth Product GBP 1 MHz
Saturation Voltage V
sat
14V
Input Offset Voltage V
io
5 mV max
Input Offset Current I
io
20 nA
Input Bias Current (average) I
B
80 nA
Common Mode Rejection Ratio CMRR 90 dB
Power supply Rejection Ratio PSRR 30 V/V