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the sources which are causing severe environmental pollution. The major environmental problem around us are, (i) Air and water pollution by industries. (ii) Forestry. (iii) Land resources. (iv) Urbanization. (v) Waste management
Important Protection Acts The Government of India and State governments have implemented a number of protection act, 1. Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974, 1978. 2. Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Amendment Act, 1987. 3. Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 amended in 1987. 4. Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. 5. Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 and 6. Environment (Protection) Act, 1972.
1974 This act provides for maintaining and restoring the sources of water. It also provides for preventing and controlling water pollution..Maintaining or restoring the wholesomeness of water.Establishing central and state boards for the prevention and control of water pollution. II. Prevention and control of water pollution. . Objectives of the water act I.WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT. III.
The States are empowered to restrain any person from discharging a pollutant or sewage or effluent into any water body without the consent of the Board. . The Act is not clear about the definition of pollutant. 4. discharge of pollutant.Important features of Water Act 1. 2. to protect the water from all kinds of pollution and to preserve the quality of water in all aquifers. 5. This Act aims at. Any contravention of the guidelines or standards would attract penal action including prison sentence ranging from three months to six years. The Act further provides for the establishment of Central Board and State Boards for prevention of water pollution. 3.
and disposal system or any extension or addition there to. State Pollution Control Board The consent of the State Pollution Control Board is needed to (i) Take steps to establish any industry or any treatment. (ii)Use any new or altered outlet for the discharge a sewage. which is likely to discharge or trade effluent into a stream or well or river or on land. . (iii) Begin to make any new discharge of sewage.The Amendment Act of 1988 requires permission to set up an industry which may discharge effluent.
It deals with the problems relating to air pollution. • It envisages the establishment of Central and State Control Boards endowed with absolute powers to monitor air quality and pollution control. Objectives of air act (i) To prevent. control and abatement of air pollution. (ii) To maintain the quality of air.AIR (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT. (iii) To establish a board for the prevention and control of air pollution . 1981 • This Act was enacted in the Conference held at Stockholm in 1972.
(e) The State Boards are to examine the manufacturing processes and the control of equipment to verify whether they meet the standards prescribed. (b) The Central Board coordinates and settle disputes between state boards. (a) .Important features of Air Act The Central Board may lay down the standards for the quality of air. (d) The State Boards are to collect and disseminate information related to air pollution and also to function as inspectorates of air pollution. in addition to providing technical assistance and guidance to State Boards. (c) The State Boards are empowered to lay down the standards for emissions of air pollutants from industrial units or automobiles or other sources.
like Water Act. if it is highly polluting. The Air Act.(g) The directions of the Central Board are mandatory on State Boards (h) The State Board can advise the State Government to declare certain heavily polluted areas as pollution control areas and can advice to avoid the burning of waste products which cause air pollution in such areas. confers wide powers on State Boards to order closure of any industrial unit or stoppage or regulation of supply of water electricity or other services. . (i) The operation of an industrial unit is prohibited in a heavily polluted areas without the consent of the Central Board. (j) Violation of law is punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months or fine up to Rupees ten thousand or both. This Act applies to all pollution industries.
• This Act is enacted in 1980. This act also covers all type of forests including reserved forests.FOREST (CONSERVATION (OR) PRESERVATIVE ) ACT. protected forests and any forested land. It aims at to arrest deforestation.1980 • This act provides conservation of forests and related aspects. Objectives of forest act (i) To protect and conserve the forest. (ii) To ensure judicious use of forest products .
afforestation.Important features of Forest Act (i) The reserved forests shall not be diverted or dereserved without the prior permission of the central government.afforestation is forbidden (iii) The diversion of forest land for non-forest uses is cognisable offence and anyone who violates the law is punishable . (ii) The land that has been notified or registered or forest land may not be used for non-forest purposes. (iii) Any illegal non-forest activity within a forest area can be immediately stopped under act. Important features of Amendment Act of 1988 (i) Forest departments are forbidden to assign any forest land by way of lease or otherwise to any private person or nongovernment body for re. (ii) Clearance of any forest land of naturally grown trees for the purpose of re.
ivory etc. 1986 AND 1991 • • • • • • To protect and preserve wildlife. Wildlife is an integral part of our ecology and plays an essential role in its functioning.000 known species of insects.skins. furs. the wildlife products . feathers. Wild life refers to all animals and plants that are not domesticated. . The wildlife is declining due to human actions. Some of them are listed as 'endangered species' in the Wildlife (Protection) Act. It has 350 species of mammals.. India has rich wildlife heritage. 1200 species of birds and about 20. AMENDED IN 1983. have decimated the populations of many species.WILDLIFE (PROTECTION) ACT. 1972. Wildlife populations are regularly monitored and management strategies formulated to protect them.
The rights of forest dwellers recognized by the Forest Policy of 1988 are taken away bye the Amended Wild life Act of 1991. (ii) To preserve biodiversity. (iii) To ensure a continuous use of species. . Important features 1. 3.Objectives of the wildlife act (i) To maintain essential ecological processes and life-supporting systems. It also prohibits the collection of non-timber forest 4. The act covers the rights and non-rights of forest dwellers. It provides restricted grazing in sanctuaries but prohibits in national parks. 2.
. Objectives of environmental act (i) To protect and improvement of the environment. (iii) To maintain harmonious relationship between humans and their environment. This Act empowers the Central government to fix the standards for quality of air. (ii) To prevent hazards to all living creatures and property. water.ENVIRONMENT (PROTECTION) ACT. soil and noise and to formulate procedures and safe guards for handling of hazard substances. 1986 This is a general legislation law in order to rectify the gaps and laps in the above Acts.
if the violation of the provisions of the Act occur. . 2. The penal sections of the Act contain more stringent penalties.Important features of Environment Act 1. 3. The Government has the authority to close or prohibit or regulate any industry or its operation. Any person who fails to comply or who contravenes any provision of the Act shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term extending to five years or be punishable with fine up to Rupees one lakh or both. The Act further empowers the Government to lay down procedures and safe guards for the prevention of accidents which cause pollution and remedial measures if an accident occurs.
Whether he/she is the director or Manager or Secretary 'Or any other officer. The Act empowers the officer of Central government to inspect the site or the plant or the machinery for preventing pollution. The Act fixes the liability of the offence punishable under Act on the person who is directly in charge. soil or other material from any factory or its premises for testing. . 6. water. If the violation continues.4. and to collect samples of air. 5. unless he/she proves that it was committed without his/her knowledge or consent. an additional fine of Rupees five thousands per day may be imposed for the entire period of violation of rules.
Liability audit: It assess compliance with legal obligations. . 3. A functional audit (activity or issues audit): It investigates a specific area such as energy or water use.ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITS Environmental audits are intended to quantify environmental performance and environmental position. 2. It also aims to define what needs to be done to improve on indicators of such performance and position. Types of audits There are three types of environmental audits 1. A management audit: It verifies that an environmental management strategy meets its stated objectives.
Purpose of ISO 14000 To promote effective and efficient environmental management in organization and provide useful and usable tools. The end result is intended to be the improvement of the environmental performance. .ISO STANDARDS ISO 14000 ISO 14000 is the environmental management standards which exist to help organizations minimize how their operations negatively affect the environment and comply with applicable laws and regulations.
(iv) The air in towns is badly polluted.ISSUES INVOL ED IN ENFORCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION • There are number of environmental laws in the form of Acts for safeguarding our environmental quality. still we are losing our wild life and natural resources: There are so many drawbacks and problems in implementing environmental legislations. • But we cannot implement it strictly. Problems in enforcing the legislation The followings are the problems in enforcing the legislations. (ii) We lose our wildlife continuously. (i) We have not achieved the target of bringing 33% of our land cover under forest. . (iii) The rivers are now opened to sewer. (v) There are many drawbacks in our environmental laws and in their implementation.
1972. it has not included any locally evolved conservation measures. Since Jammu and Kashmir has its own Wildlife Act. prohibited in other states. are allowed in J and K. The ownership certificates for some animal articles (like leopard and tiger skins) often serves as a tool for illegal trading. Drawbacks of the Wildlife Protection Act. The offenders of the Act are not subjected to very harsh fines. 3. 4.000 or imprisonment for up to 3 years. .Major issues related to these legislation 1. 2. hunting and trading of many endangered species. It is just a fine of Rs 25. Since this Act has been enacted just as a fallout of Stockholm Conference held in 1972.
. • The forest .2. But their role and contribution is not acknowledged.. When they are stopped from taking any resources from there. • The power has been centralized at the top. • The tribal's who lived in the forest were totally dependent on forest resources. • This law is concentrated on protecting the trees. 1980 • This Act just transfers the powers from state to centre to decide the conversion of reserve forest lands to non-forest areas. but is less concentrated on poor people. local communities have been completely neglected from the decision making process regarding the nature of forest area. killing etc. their importance and conservation. they involve in criminal activities like smuggling. Drawbacks of the Forest (conservation) Act. about the forest resources.dwelling tribal communities have a rich knowledge. birds and animals.
It hinders effective implementation of the Act in the states. • The penalties in the act is very small when compared to the damage caused by the big industries due to pollution. • For small unit it is very expensive to install Effluent Treatment Plant. • Litigation. Drawbacks of Pollution related Act • The power and authority has been given only to central government with little of power to state government. Hence it is difficult to implement the act without political interference. • The position of chairman of the boards is occupied by political appointee. since it involves technical knowledge. related to environment is expensive. • A person cannot directly file a petition in the court. .3.
Functions of Central Board • • • • • • • • • It advises the central government regarding the prevention of pollution. It establishes labs for the analysis of air and water samples. . It provides technical assistance and guidance to state boards and sponsor research regarding water.Role of central and state pollution control boards Central and state pollution control boards takes many step to control pollution. It lays down standards for the well water and air. It plans for the prevention and control of pollution. 1. Central and state boards emphasize to use "Clean technology" by the industries to reduce pollution. It identifies areas or industries causing air pollution. It encourages industries to recycle and reuse the wastes. It also advises the industries to treat waste water and gases with modem technology. air pollution.
• It encourages research and investigations regarding pollution. industrial plant and gives orders to take the necessary steps to control pollution. Functions of the State Board • It advises the state government on any matter concerning the prevention and control of pollution. sent to him and submit a report to the board and respective industry.2. • The analyst of the board is expected to analyze the sample. • It organises educational programme in collaboration with central board. . • It has the right to inspect at all times any pollution control equipment.
Madras Naturalists Society (MNS). "mahila mandals". World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). . The report as per CSE-on permissible limits of pesticides in the cola drinks sensitized the public all over the country.ROLE OF NGO IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION • Voluntary organizations help the government in local environmental issues and interact at grass root level. • Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS). • The NGO. Chennai. Centre for Science and Environment (CSE). • Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad. creates awareness amongst the women of remote villages to educate them and help them to become healthy and economically self-dependent. India are some of the NGOs taking many steps for the environmental protection and health. • Narmada Bachao Andolan was organized by Kalpav viksh.
• To train our planners. • To eliminate poverty by providing employment that overcome the basic environmental issues. • To learn to live simple and eco-friendly manner .makers. politicians and administrators.PUBLIC AWARENESS Objectives of public awareness • To create awareness among people of rural and city about ecological imbalances. • To organise meetings. • To focus on current environment problems and situations. local environment technological development and various development plants. exhibitions. group discussion on development. decision . tree plantation programmes.
This films may be released with tax free to attract the public . street plays. Environmental awareness in schools and colleges: Environmental education must be imparted to the students in schools and colleges. The various methods that is useful for raising environmental awareness are discussed here. plantation campaign. TV and cable network can educate the people on environmental issues through cartoons. Cinema: Film about environmental education should be prepared and screened in the theatre compulsorily. documentaries.Methods to create Environmental Awareness • Environmental awareness must be created through formal and informal education to all sections of the society. Through mass-media: Media like Radio. 1. 2. 3.
News papers: All the newspaper as well as magazines must publish the environment related problems. Rotary club. dramas. special audio visual and slide shows should be arranged in all public places. These techniques attract the rural people very much. may be utilized to spread environmental messages to the public. NSS. 5. 7. Traditional techniques: The traditional techniques like folk plays. Voluntary organisations: The services of the voluntary bodies like. NCC. .4. Audio . 6.visual media: To disseminate the concept of environment. should be effectively utilized for spreading the environmental awareness.
8. Arranging Competitions: Story writing. 9. essay writing and painting competitions on environmental issues should be organised for students. . Leaders appeal: Political leaders.Government Organisations (NGOs): Voluntary organization can help by advising the government about some local environmental issues. Attractive prizes should be awarded for the best effort. as well as for the public. Also they can be effective in organising public movements for protection of environment through creation of awareness. cine actors and popular social reformers can make an appeal to the public about the urgency of environmental protection. Non . 10.