Business Environment

商业(企业)环境

Tutor: XIONG Jiayi

熊嘉逸

Self-Introduction :
XIONG Jiayi (Irene) 熊嘉逸
LLB of China University of Political Science and Law 中国政法大学法学学士 LLM of City University of Hong Kong (WTO) 香港城市大学世界贸易组织法法学硕士 E-mail: irenexiong@hotmail.com

About this Unit
 What  Why  How

– what are we going to learn?

– why do we need to learn? – how to learn?

What – what are we going to learn?
 Organisations

组织( types, aims, stakeholders( 利益关系人 ), objectives responsibilities )  Environment 商业环境 ( economic system, role of state, government policy )  Competition 竞争状态 ( market types, market forces and organisational

Why – why do we need to learn?
The unit provides us: - an understanding of the context (环境背 景) in which organisations function - a solid base of understanding of the parameters( 因素 ) within which organisations act in the future units

How – how to learn?
 Lectures  Presentation  Independent  Small

assignment

tests  Games

Chapter 1

The types of organisations 组织(企业)的类型

The types of organisations
Classify (分类) in a variety of ways, including:  Size (e.g. large, medium, small)  Type of industry (e.g. primary, secondary, tertiary)  Sector (部门) (e.g. private sector, public sector)  Legal status (法律地位) (e.g. sole trader, partnership, and company)

The key terms Sole trader 独资经营 Partnership 合伙企业 Limited Liability Company 有限责任公司 Joint Stock company 股份有限公司

The sole trader 独资经营
 Being

your own boss, making your own decisions  The simplest and easiest method of trading  Unlimited personal liability (无限连带责任 ) for the debts of the business  Most popular form of business organisation numerically( 数字上的 )  High mortality rate (高死亡率)

Sole Trader

 Can

you give me some examples?

The partnership 合伙经营
 Two

or more people establish (成立, 建立) a business which they own, finance and run jointly for personal gain (不考虑) of serious form and formal written agreement 合伙经营 共享收益 共担风险

 Irrespective

 共同出资

QUESTION :

The ways of capital contributions? 出资方式?

QUESTION:

Is Labor allowed ? 可否以劳动力出资?

WAYS :
Currency Intellectual

Property Right Land use right other non-monetary properties Labor (agreement)

The partnership 合伙
 Unlimited

personal liability jointly and severally( 共同责任承担 )

 Downsides:

the binding on the members (成员行为的约束 力) ; disagreement without formal agreement (意见 分歧)

Partnership

Case

Analyse

Company 公司
A

company is corporate body recognised by law as having a legal identity separate from that of its members (i.e. shareholders)
由法律承认并被法律视为具有独立于其成员 (如:股东)的法律人格的合作性组织。

Person (人在法律上的分类)

Juridical/Legal person 法人 vs Natural person 自然人

Compare (区 分) Juridical/Legal person 法人 vs  Representative of Juridical/Legal person 法人代表

Company
 Property

and assets of the company (公司 财产) belong to company but not members. asset of members ( 成员个人财产 ) belong to members but not company. with Sold Trader and Partnership

 Personal

 Compare

Key terms in Company
 Company

Directors 董事  Managing Director 管理董事  The board of directors 董事会  Articles of association 公司章程  Shareholder 股东  Stakeholder 利益相关人 (银币的故事)

Glossary (术语表):
 Company

Directors – Individual appointed or elected by a company’s shareholders to run the company and to represent their interest. 公司董事 Director – the chief administrative of executive officer within a company who is responsible for ensuring that Board decisions are put into effect and who forms the key link between the Board of directors and the management team of senior executives. (CEO) 管理董事

 Managing

Glossary:
 Articles

of association – a document regulating the internal administration of a company including the rights of shareholders, the qualifications required of directors and rules relating to company, etc.
、住所、经营范围、经营管理制度等重大事项的 基本文件。公司章程对公司、股东、董事、监事 、经理具有约束力。

 公司章程,是指公司依法制定的、规定公司名称

Glossary:
Shareholder

– the owners (or members) of a company 股东 – anyone with an interest in an organisation and who is affected by and can affect its performance 利益相关人

Stakeholder

Company Law
 The

term “company” as mentioned in Company Law of the People‘s Republic of China refers to a limited liability company or a joint stock company limited established within the territory (领域) of the People’s Republic of China in accordance with (符合 ) the provisions (条款) of this law.

Company Law of the PRC- Article 3
A

company is an enterprise juridical person, which has independent juridical person property and enjoys the property right of the juridical person. And it shall bear the liabilities for its debts with all its property.  公司是企业法人,有独立的法人财产,享有法 人财产权。公司以其全部财产对公司的债务承 担责任。

Limited liability company 有限公司

The conditions for being a limited company under Chinese company law: 设立有限责任公司,应具备下 列条件: - a minimum of 30,000RMB 股东出资达到法定资本最低限额; - a maximum of 50 shareholders 股东符合法定人数; - Articles of Association 股东共同制定公司章程; - company name; required departments 有公司名称,建立符合有限责任公司要求的组织机构 ; - business place 有公司住所。

Limited liability companies 有限公司
 In

the event of insolvency( 破产清算 ), an individual’s liability is limited to the amount invested in the business; 股东以出资为限对公司承担责任; the company takes the debt responsibility on all its assets. 公司以其全部资产对其债务承担责任。

Company Law of the PRC- Article 3
 As

for a limited liability company, the shareholders shall be responsible for ( 对…负责 ) the company to the extent of (以 .. 为限) the capital contributions they have paid.  有限责任公司的股东以其认缴的出资额为 限对公司承担责任

QUESTION

I

like to be my own boss but I don’t want to take unlimited responsibility. I run A one-person Limited Liability Company?

 Can

ANSWER
 YES!  There

is a special type of limited liability company which meets your requirement.

One-person limited liability company
 "one-person

limited liability company" refers to a limited liability company with only one natural person shareholder or a juridical person shareholder. is a special type of limited liability company.

 It

 一人独资公司

One-person limited liability company
 The

minimum amount of registered capital of a one-person limited liability company shall be RMB 100, 000 Yuan. 最低投资额 shareholder shall, in a lump sum, pay the capital contribution as specified in the articles of association. 一次性足额交清

 The

One-person limited liability company
 One

natural person is allowed to establish merely one one-person limited liability company which shall not set up any further one-person limited liability company.  每人仅此一家

one-person limited liability company
A

one-person limited liability company shall, in the company registration, give a clear indication that it is solely-funded by one natural person or one juridical person, and the same shall be specified in the business license of the company.  明确注明为一人独资有限公司

one-person limited liability company
 The

articles of association 章程 of a one-person limited liability company shall be formulated by the shareholders.  公开注明义务

one-person limited liability company
If the shareholder of a one-person limited liability company is unable to prove that the property of the one-person limited liability company is independent from his own property, he shall bear joint liabilities for the debts of the company.  证明独立性义务  否则,要承担连带责任

one-person limited liability company
 Double

taxes  双重纳税义务 (公司营业税和个人所得税)  (compare with sole trader)

Stock company 股份有限公司

The conditions for being a stock company 设立股份有限公 司,应当具备下列条件: - a minimum of 500,0000RMB 发起人认购和募集的股本达 到法定资本最低限额; - 2~ 200 shareholders 发起人符合法定人数; - Articles of Association 公司章程,发起人制订公司章程, 采用募集方式设立的经创立大会通过; - business place 有公司住所。 - company name, required departments 有公司名称,建立 符合股份有限公司要求的组织机构; - stock 股份发行、筹办事项符合法律规定;

Joint stock company 有限公司
 In

the event of insolvency( 破产清算 ), an individual’s liability is limited to the share he holds in the business; 股份有限公司的股东以其认购的股份为限对公 司承担责任。 ( 区别:有限责任公司的股东以其 认缴的出资额为限对公司承担责任) the company takes the debt responsibility on all its assets. 公司以其全部资产对其债务承担责任。

Company Law of the PRC- Article 3
 As

for a joint stock limited company, the shareholders shall be responsible for the company to the extent of the shares they have subscribed to.  股份有限公司以其认购的股份为限对公 司承担责任。

The way of establishment 设立方 式
A

joint stock limited company may be established by ways of promotion (发起设立 ) or stock floatation (募集设立) . with limited liability company----only by the way of promotion 区别有限责任公司 (仅有发起设立)

 compare

Promotion 发起设立
 promotion

means that the initiators establish a company by subscribing for all of the shares that should be issued by the company.

 发起设立是指由发起人认购公司应发行的

全部股份而设立的公司。

Stock floatation 募集设立
 stock

floatation means that the initiators establish a company by subscribing for some of the shares that should be issued by the company and offering the remaining shares to the general public or to particular objects for subscription.  募集设立是指由发起人认购公司应发行股份的一 部分,其余部分向社会公开募集或者向特定对象 募集而设立的公司。

Listed Company 上市公司
 Listed

company refers to the joint stock limited companies whose shares are listed and traded in a share exchange.

 上市公司是指其股票在证券交易所上市交易的

股份有限公司。
 对比

非上市股份有限公司

Compare two company types
Limited

liability company vs Stock limited company

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