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Strategic Planning
The process by which top management determines overall organizational purposes and objectives and how they are to be achieved

Human Resource Planning

The process of systematically reviewing HR requirements to ensure that the required number of employees, with the required skills, are available when they are needed

Human Resource Planning Process

External Environment Internal Environment
Strategic Planning Human Resource Planning
Forecasting Human Resource Requirements

Comparing Requirements and Availability Surplus of Workers

Forecasting Human Resource Availability Shortage of Workers

Demand = Supply

No Action

Restricted Hiring, Reduced Hours, Early Retirement, Layoff, Downsizing


Forecasting Employment Needs

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Budgeting Work-load Analysis Unit Demand Expert Opinion Trend Predictions

HR Forecasting Techniques
Zero-based forecasting uses current level as starting point for determining future staffing needs Bottom-up approach each level of organization, starting with lowest, forecasts its requirements to provide aggregate of employment needs

Surplus of Employees
Restricted hiring employees who leave are not replaced Reduced hours/ Job sharing Early retirement Layoff Unpaid Vacations Early Retirements

Shortage of Workers Forecasted

Creative recruiting Compensation incentives premium pay is one method Training programs prepare previously unemployable people for positions Different selection standards alter current criteria


Job Analysis - Definition

Job Analysis is a systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization. Job Analysis is a detailed study of the work performed, the facilities required, the working conditions, and the skills required to complete a specific job. Also known as job study. Job - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goals, jobs have title. Task - is a typically defined as a unit of work, that is, a set of activities needed to produce some result, e.g., vacuuming a carpet, writing a memo, sorting the mail, etc. 10

The Nature of Job Analysis

Job analysis The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it. Job description A list of a jobs duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilitiesone product of a job analysis. Job specifications A list of a jobs human requirements, that is, the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on another product of a job analysis.

Types of Information Collected

Work activities: such as cleaning, selling,

Human behaviors: writing, deciding,


Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids Performance standards: quantity and quality
levels for each job

Job context: Physical working condition, schedule Human requirements: Education, training,

Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool

Human Resource Planning Recruitment Selection Training and Development Performance Appraisal Compensation and Benefits Safety and Health




Job Descriptions

Job Analysis

Job Specifications

Employee and Labor Relations




Legal Considerations Job Analysis for Teams


Uses of Job Analysis Information

Recruitment and Selection Compensation Performance Appraisal Training needs Discovering Unassigned Duties Legal Compliance

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: The Interview

Information sources
Individual employees Groups of employees Supervisors with knowledge of the job

Interview formats
Structured (Checklist) Unstructured

Quick, direct way to find overlooked information.

Distorted information

Interview Guidelines
The job analyst and supervisor should work together to identify the workers who know the job best. Quickly establish rapport with the interviewee. Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists open-ended questions and provides space for answers. Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence. After completing the interview, review and verify the data.

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Questionnaires

Information source
Have employees fill out questionnaires to describe their jobrelated duties and responsibilities.

Quick and efficient way to gather information from large numbers of employees

Questionnaire formats
Structured checklists Opened-ended questions

Expense and time consumed in preparing and testing the questionnaire

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Observation

Information source
Observing and noting the physical activities of employees as they go about their jobs.

Provides first-hand information Reduces distortion of information

Time consuming Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity.

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Participant Diary/Logs

Information source
Workers keep a chronological diary/ log of what they do and the time spent in each activity.

Produces a more complete picture of the job Employee participation

Distortion of information Depends upon employees to accurately recall their activities

Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques

The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) A questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs. The Department of Labor (DOL) procedure A standardized method by which different jobs can be quantitatively rated, classified, and compared. Functional job analysis Takes into account the extent to which instructions, reasoning, judgment, and mathematical and verbal ability are necessary for performing job tasks.

Sample Report Based on Department of Labor Job Analysis Technique

Stages in the Job Analysis Process


Job Description Components

Identification Job title Reporting relationships Department Location Date of analysis General Summary Describes the jobs distinguishing responsibilities and components Essential Functions and Duties Lists major tasks, duties and responsibilities Job Specifications Knowledge, skills, and abilities Education and experience Physical requirements Disclaimer Of implied contract Signature of approvals

Job Analysis in Perspective


Job Design
Process of determining the specific tasks to be performed, the methods used in performing these tasks, and how the job relates to other work in the organization Job enrichment - Basic changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job, so as to provide greater challenge to the worker Job enlargement - Changes in the scope of a job to provide greater variety to the worker Reengineering/ Rejobbing Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service and speed 25

Job Evaluation
Evaluation or rating of job to determine ones position in the job hierarchy Job evaluation is a method for comparing different jobs to provide a basis for a grading and pay structure. Its aim is to evaluate the job, not the jobholder, and to provide a relatively objective means of assessing the demands of a job

Recruitment and Selection

The recruitment and selection process is Strategic a series of hurdles aimed at selecting the Business Planning best candidate for the job.
Long-range planning Human Resource Planning Middle-range planning

Staffing Model
Human Resource Planning Environmental Scanning Forecasting

Strategic Planning

Operational Planning Goals and Objectives

Short-range planning

Projected Staffing Requirements

Recruitment Planning

Applicant Search
Selection Preliminary Screening Selection Decision