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What is assessment?
The evaluation of a student's achievement on a course The systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development (Palomba & Banta). Process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs.

Issues on Assessment in Malaysia


Alternative Assessment

Mismatch between the intended and implemented curriculum

Overemphasi s on public examination performance

What is PBS/SBA?
PBS is a short term for Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah and better known in Malaysia than SBA or School-Based Assessment (English term). A holistic assessment that assessed student achievement in many aspects such as cognitive (intellect). affective (emotion and spiritual) and psychomotor (physical) based on Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan and Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR). To assess curricular and non-curricular sectors.

PBS Components
Pentaksiran Sekolah (PS) Pentaksiran Pusat (PP) Pentaksiran Aktiviti Jasmani, Sukan dan Kokurikulum (PAJSK) Pentaksiran Psikometrik

PBS Objective
To get overview on individual potential. To monitor the development and help improving the individual performance. To make reports on individual studies.

Subject assessed in PBS

All subjects in primary and secondary schools will be assessed in PBS.

Advantages of PBS
Performance standard is used to determine improvement and growth in teaching and the performance of the student. The students are assessed fairly based on their performance, skills and talent without being compared to other students.

PBS: A Workload to Teachers?

Teachers will find it gives more benefit to both students and teachers and it will not be a workload on the teachers if it is managed and implemented wisely.

Problem Caused by PBS

Since the system is new, the system still have a lot of weaknesses and usually is hard to access. The cause: maybe too much data to be input at once. Need to improve the system

Alternative Assessment

Assessment is the process of integration of information gathering, interpreting information or give value to it and make a decision based on the interpretation made.

Assessmen t

According to (Logsdon, 2011), alternative assessment have different forms of assessment which can accommodate a student's disability.

Alternative assessment is also a non-traditional approach to use in evaluating student performance (Aurbach & Associates, 2011).

Alternative Assessment Purpose

Help teachers and students identify their strengths and weaknesses Provide opportunities for students to make personal reflection on the learning progress Identify student abilities to apply knowledge acquired

Oral Presentation



Type of Alternative Assessmen t


Short Question

Performance Assessment

Alternatif Assessment Phase

Set goals, determine learning needs, and provide a basic data

Check the documentation of progress



Process Oriented


Alternatif Assessment Features


Conducted With The Students

Bilateral Nature

Focus on strength from student weakness

Form reference criteria

Process Oriented
Rather than focusing on the results, it is better focused on the development

Associated with teaching content

Bilateral Nature
With two-way evaluation, teachers and students to take responsibility

Conducted With The Student

Involve students as partners in the assessment process

Alternative Assessment Advantages

Can provide a meaningful learning experience

Enhance analytical thinking skills, critical and creative Improve their communication skills

Students are actively involved

Providing a clear perspective on the progress of studen

Deficiencies And Challenges Alternative Assessment

It takes a lot of time
Some tools, methods need high costs Difficulty in the selection of appropriate tools and activities Difficult to perform There is still injustice


Malaysian School Mathematics Syllabus Main Aim

The Mathematics curriculum for secondary school aims to develop individuals who are able to think mathematically and who can apply mathematical knowledge effectively and responsibly in solving problems and making decision. This will enable individual to face challenges in everyday life that arise due to the advancement of science and technology.

(Ministry of Education Malaysia, 2003, p.1)

Five elements to be focused on in the teaching and learning of mathematics:

Problem solving in mathematics; Communication in mathematics; Reasoning in mathematics; Mathematical connections; and Application of technology

cooperative learning

contextual learning

mastery learning

Teaching Approaches
future studies enquiry-discovery constructivism

The concern is to what extent have these noble intentions and suggestions been implemented successfully in the Malaysian classrooms

Drill and practice was the most common teaching approach adopted Finish syllabus within a limited period


(a) Boring and meaningless lessons (b) Not promoting mathematical thinking or communication among pupils

Suggestion For Change

Standardized national test can be used as a catalyst to promote good instructional practice Gradually change the emphasis from procedural skills to higher order thinking competencies Teacher professional development programme such as lesson study might be needed to help teachers to collaborate

Overemphasis on public examination performance

Public examinations performances are viewed as extremely important in Malaysia. Scholl rank based to their student performance Examination result as a measure of school accountability and individual pride. The attitude of overly obsession with public standardised examinations has resulted in several unintended consequences

Overemphasis on public examination performance

Teach to the test syndrome

Rushing to finish the syllabus/ content

Learned paralysis

Teach to the test syndrome

Teachers tend to focus only on contents and

No exploring or learning new content areas or skills

student only need to memorise the model answer to would be examination questions

Rushing to finish the syllabus/ content

Finishing syllabus becomes the sole responsibility of the teachers. The concern related: if the syllabus content is planned to be completed in a year, can it be shorten to just half a year? Will the students understand the content fully? Why is there a need to finish the syllabus if the students could not understand? An informal survey of a few primary and secondary schools shows that most schools are required to set at least four test each school year

This testing phenomenon might have been overemphasized by some Schools

As a consequence of rushing to finish the syllabus, some teachers have opted to teach by mainly show and tell approach

Learned paralysis
The term Learned Paralysis was coined by the former Malaysian Chief Director of Education, Tan Sri Dr Wan Zahid Nordin as a subtle form of mental inertia which he argued that most Malaysian students were suffering as a result of the examination oriented school system.

Insofar as on the surface, it has the appearance of desirable intellectual activity and indeed accepted by educational institutions as proof of high quality learning. I am referring to the ability to regurgitate information thrown at them when they are orally questioned or when they are taking examinations. You can be sure that the majority of students in schools and tertiary institutions who obtain straight As are expert at regurgitating information as required by the way the examination papers are designed. There is no need to fully understand what is being put down in the answers. The marking scheme does not require that.
(Wan Zahid Nordin, 2009)

Therefore, students with learned paralysis might appear to obtain straight As in the public examinations, but they do not possess soft skills. They are predictably hesitant and diffident and not forthcoming with ideas. They lack creativity and innovative skills. They lack the interpersonal skills to bring into play the unique diversity that characterizes our nation. They do not demonstrate a capacity for thinking. (Wan Zahid Nordin, 2009)