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Purpose of a Project
• The purpose of a project is to bring about change
• • • • • Scheduling Philosophy Scheduling Terms and Definitions Types of Schedules Relationships Resources
“When you don’t know where you are going, it is hard to tell when you get there”. Yogi Berra
• Why do you schedule? • What do you schedule? • When do you schedule?
Scheduling Philosophy (cont’d)
• Why do you schedule? – Better manage the project – Control change – Satisfy customer or contractual requirements – Monitor and measure progress against goals • A schedule is a formalized method of managing time and resources
Scheduling Philosophy (cont’d) • What do you schedule? – Milestones – Activities required by contract or customer – Activities critical to the performance of the project – Changes to the original plan • A simple schedule that is used is far more valuable than the most detailed schedule created to satisfy a contractual requirement! .
or at the beginning of a project.Scheduling Philosophy (cont’d) • When do you schedule? – Prior to. This is commonly referred to “updating” – If there are changes in the scope of the project – If the project is substantially behind or ahead of the baseline . This schedule is referred to as the “baseline” – At periodic intervals during the project.
Will Rogers .“Even if you’re on the right track. you’ll get run over if you just sit there”.
Scheduling Terms and Definitions • Common scheduling terms and what they mean – Project – Activity (Schedule or Task) – Duration – Relationship – Bar Chart (Gantt) .
Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d) – Lag – Critical Path – Milestone – Float – Work breakdown Structure (WBS) – Resource .
typically time. money and people – A project is measurable .Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d) • Project – A project is finite. it has a specific beginning and endpoints – A project contains resources.
Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d) • Activity (Schedule or Task) – The activity is the basic building block of a schedule – An activity defines a measurable quantity of work .
Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d) • Duration – Measurable unit to perform an activity – Typically. durations are in work hours or work days • Relationship – The interdependency of one activity to another .
Shows duration and planned sequence of activities • Lag – The time associated in the relationship between two activities.Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d) • Bar Chart (Gantt) – Graphical representation of a group of activities making up a project. In this case. stripping forms can not be completed until 10 days after concrete is placed. For example. there is a 10 day lag between the activities . represented by bars along the horizontal time axis.
Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d) • Critical Path – The path or paths which are the series of activities having zero float and must be completed on their scheduled dates or the project is in jeopardy • Milestone – A point in time that signifies either the beginning or the end of a series of related activities. A milestone has zero duration .
Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d) • Float – A measure of leeway in activity performance. Typical float types are “free float” and “total float” • Free float is the amount of time that an activity’s start can be delayed without affecting the early start of successor activities • Total float is the amount of time in starting or finishing an activity that will not affect the completion of the project .
equipment. . design. materials. etc.Scheduling Terms and Definitions (cont’d) • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) – Framework for organizing activities that make up a project • Resource – Anything needed to complete an activity: labor.
Types of Schedules • • • • Milestone Time Scaled Logic Network Bar or Gantt Charts PERT .
Types of Schedules • Milestone (Level 1) – List of milestones and dates – Used to report at the summary level • Time Scaled Logic Network (Level 2) – Graphical presentation of the schedule – Lists activities and durations – Shows logic ties and constraints .
Milestone Chart D1 D3 D5 D7 D9 Design Kitchen Designer Selected Plans Completed Finalize Design .
Types of Schedules (cont’d) • Program Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT) Level 2 • Graphic view that allows for easy evaluation of the flow of a project .
Basic Logic Network Task J Task E Task K Task F Task O Task B Task A Task C Task I Task L Task G Task D Task N Task M Task Q Task P Task R Task H .
Types of Schedules (cont’d) • Bar or Gantt Chart (Level 3) – Graphical presentation of the schedule – Lists activities and durations – May show logic – Used for small projects .
Bar (Gantt) Chart D1 D3 D5 D7 D9 D11 Design Kitchen Select Designer Create Plans Finalize Design .
Types of Schedules (cont’d) • Short duration schedules – Derived from the master schedule – Typically a bar chart – Used for near-term planning – Shows 2 weeks past. current week and 2 weeks forward .
Relationships • Relationships are the interdependencies between one activity and another or group of activities • The four types of relationships are: – Finish-to-Start – Start-to-Start – Finish-to-Finish – Start-to-Finish .
Relationships (cont’d) • Finish-to-Start – The most common type of scheduling activity relationship. Simply stated. on a construction project you can’t pour the concrete until the reinforcing steel is in place . the start of the next activity is dependent upon the completion of the previous activity – For example.
the design phase can start as soon as the permitting process has started .Relationships (cont’d) • Start-to-Start – Start-to-Start relationship implies that an activity can start once another specified activity has started – For example.
the software user’s manual can be started after the start of coding and testing but can’t be completed until coding and debugging is completed . This relation ship is commonly used with start-tostart relationships – For example.Relationships (cont’d) • Finish-to finish – Finish-to-Finish relationship implies that the completion of an activity is dependent upon the completion of another activity.
Relationships (cont’d) • Start-to-Finish – Start-to-Finish relationship implies that an activity can’t be completed until the predecessor activity has started – This type of relationship is very rarely used .
Resources • All projects consume resources! • Resources are not just people: – resources can include money. material. – How well these resources are allocated and monitored is a key measure of any project’s success or failure . and more. equipment.
Resources (Cont’d) • Assigning resources to a project and monitoring and reporting against the schedule provides the project manager with: – Ability to estimate remaining work – Ability to prepare accurate progress payments – Ability to provide historical data – Ability to address changes .
Steps in Creating a Project Schedule Schedule Control Schedule Development Estimating Activity Duration Activity Sequencing Activity Definition .
Developing a Project Schedule • Activity Definition – An activity must have a definable start and end – An activity is used to develop a plan for completing a project that sequences and schedules each activity – An activity is quantifiable and measurable .
Developing a Project Schedule (Cont’d) • Activities shall relate to the WBS and allow for ease in quantifying and reporting • For example. in a construction schedule the activity might be F/R/P Slab-on-Grade. and P = place concrete. where F = form. Breaking down the activity further would require additional resources to monitor for no additional return . R= place reinforcing.
Sample WBS for a Construction Project Project 2000 Design 100 Procurement 200 Construction 300 Startup & Commissioning 400 Completion 500 Sitework 310 Warehouse 320 Plant 330 Office Complex 340 Footings 03301 Concrete Floor Slab 03005 Exterior Masonry Walls 04000 Steel Construction 05100 Roofing Systems 07000 Interior Construction 09000 Mechanical 15000 Electrical 16000 Fine Grade 02310 Edge From 03105 Place Reinforcing 03205 Embeds 05510 Place Concrete Pumped 03305 Steel Trowel Finish 03402 Cure and Protect 03410 Resources Labor Consumables Material Subcontract Equipment .
This is the first pass at developing a schedule. As you refine the schedule you will incorporate Start-to-Start and Finish-to-Finish relationships .Developing a Project Schedule (Cont’d) • Logic and relationships – Develop actual logic not placeholder logic – Use conventional Finish-to-Start logic to develop relationships.
Developing a Project Schedule (Cont’d) • Calendars – Is the project going to be scheduled in hours or days? – Will there be work activities that are outside the normal work periods of the project? – Will the project include week-ends and holidays? .
Developing a Project Schedule (Cont’d) • Durations – Does the duration of each activity seem practical and achievable? – Nature of the task critical to the project or fill-in work? – Durations should be no less than 2-3 days nor longer than 15 days .
Developing a Project Schedule (Cont’d) • Resources – What resources should be incorporated? – Tie resources to the level of the activities – A good place to begin assigning resources is from the budget or cost estimate .
Advanced Scheduling Topics • • • • • Resource Allocation Constraints Baselining the Plan Updating / Reporting Progress Controlling Change .
Resource Allocation • • • • • Team Building Matching Skills to Activities Estimating Hours Assigning to Activities Over allocated? .
96 Overallocated: 235 268.85 6.Resource Histogram ber 11/17 300% 11/24 12/1 December 12/8 12/15 12/22 12/29 1/5 January 1/12 1/19 1/26 2/2 February 2/9 2/16 2/23 3/2 March 3/9 3/16 3/23 250% 200% 150% 100% 50% 30 100 170 200 224.81 50 96.29 Graphi cs Support Allocated: Shows the group and/or individual workload against available resources Helps assess if the work can be done based on people involved .1 88.
Constraints • Time • Dependencies • Assumptions • Physical .
JIT • Start No Later Than • Finish No Earlier Than .Time Constraints • No Constraint – Early Date • Start No Earlier Than • Finish No Later Than • As Late As Possible .
Dependency Constraints • Mandatory Dependencies • Discretionary Dependencies • External Dependencies .
Baselining the Plan • • • • • Original Plan = Baseline Baseline vs. Current Schedule Changes to Baseline Performance Measurement Earned Value .
Updating / Progressing • Percent Complete – Time – Budget – Physical • Remaining Duration • Remaining Work .
Outputs From Progressing • “Schedule updates” • “Corrective action” • “Lessons learned” .
” CHANGE Manage change.” • A famous project manager once said “We have met the enemy and the enemy is change. you must know the enemy.Change Control Management • A famous general once said “To win the war. or it will manage you!!! .
Change Requests • • • • A result of most ongoing projects Change in scope Change in schedule Change in cost (on cost type contracts) Change is inevitable on ALL projects .
Change Control Bottom Line Proper Change Control Dropped Balls = Failed Project .
THAT’S IT .
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