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Look at the pictures. Discuss with your friends. Do you like reading?

Which one that you want to read? Why? What are the contents of every magazine? Can you predict?

1. Read the title. 2. Look at the pictures (if there are any). 3. Read the first few sentences in the first paragraph. 4. Read the first line of the other paragraphs. 5. Read the last sentence of the last paragraph. 6. Watch for names, dates, and numbers.

Scanning is very high-speed reading. When you scan, you have a question in mind. You do not read every word, only the words that answer your question. Practice in scanning will help you learn to skip over unimportant words so that you can read faster.

Looking up the dictionary

Reading brochure Searching the internet Find travelling magazines Looking up phone book, index, timetable, or newspaper ads.

It is impossible to know the exact meaning of every word when reading a text,
A more efficient way to figure out unfamiliar words is to use the context clues.

Context clues is the other words in the sentence or from nearby sentences that help you to understand new words. So, context clues are keys to understand the meaning of words in any piece of writing.

Definition To be (is, am, are), mean, define, be called, & be known. e.g. Some countries have developed for more and more decades. A decade means a period of

time in ten years.

Restatement Or, in other words, that is or that is to say, and punctuation marks like commas, dashes (-), and bracket () e.g. He felt despondent, in other words, he was very


Illustrations or examples Such as, for example, for instance, like, especially, & including. e.g. Bruce usually help his wife with chores such

as washing plates, cleaning the house, ironing clothes, etc.

Clogs are similar to shoes, but they are made of wood

Comparison as if, like, too, also, and similar to e.g.

Contrast But, However, nevertheless, while, although, even though, unlike, in contrast, and conversely e.g. Some animals like to live alone, but most animals

are gregarious.

Synonym Too, also, and e.g. The police compelled a robber to get

into the car, and they also forced another to face the wall.

Antonym But, yet, whereas, on the contrary e.g. The police compelled a robber to get into

the car, and they also forced another to face the wall.

Situation and explanation No signal words (Reading other sentences which surround the unknown word is equired) e.g. Before she went to see doctor, Suzan had suffered from insomnia for several years.

Every night she found it hard to fall asleep.

To skim is to pass quickly over material - as quickly as you can - while getting a general, holistic view of the content.
Skimming is most useful for obtaining a surface understanding and is not recommended for in-depth understanding or analysis.

Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. When you read the newspaper, you're probably not reading it word-by-word, instead you're skimmingg the text.

People often skim when they have lots of material to read in a limited amount of time. Use skimming when you want to see if an article may be of interest in your research

1. Do a minimal preview of length, title, subtitle, publication information, visual aids, difficulty level.
2. Read selectively for main ideas. Key parts to focus on are usually a lead, first paragraph (usually the introduction), beginnings of key paragraphs, last paragraph (usually the conclusion). 3. Time yourself and keep the correct mind-set. 4. Vary your rate. Read key parts carefully and reread them if necessary; race past or through unimportant material.

Move your eyes in a wide spiral pattern. A very wide "S" curve is appropriate for most textbooks. Use the straight down pattern when skimming academic journal articles, magazines, newspapers, or other material formatted in columns. 6. Use a soft focus. Relax your eye and facial muscles, look slightly above the line of print, and let your eyes float down the page. Try to read lines, not individual letters and words.

Before reading Use skimming to preview - establish context, purpose, and content During reading Use skimming to find thesis, main idea, major supporting details, organizational pattern, overall style, main characters, plot outline.
After reading Use skimming to review - organizing, analyzing, evaluating, and reacting

Text 1

We cannot drink sea water, for two reasons. First, the bacterial count may be too high for our health. The second and main reason is that the salt content of sea water (about a quarter-pound of salt to a gallon of water) is too great for the human body. Even though a certain amount of salt is necessary for body cells to stay healthy, an excess leads to dehydration, and death. What is this text mostly about? A. How much salt is contained in sea water. B. Why it is easier to swim in ea water than fresh water. C. Why the human body needs salt. D. Why it is dangerous to drink sea water.

Text 2

There are four basic "ingredients" that go into the "recipe" for making soil: tiny pieces of rock, decayed plants and animals, water, and air. When small pieces of rock break off larger ones, they form the basis of all soil. This breaking can occur in several ways: through the action of glaciers pushing rocks along the ground and grinding them against other rocks; through the action of chemicals in water eating away at rocks; through changes in temperature causing water to freeze in rocks and crack the rock open; through the force of wind throwing sand and pebbles against rocks; and through the movement of plant roots splitting rocks apart. This rocky, ground-up material is called the parent material of the soil.

What is that text mostly about?

A. B. C. D. The importance of worms in creating soil. The grinding of rocks by glaciers. How rocks break down to form soil. The composition of different kinds of rocks