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GROUP MEMBERS: 1.ELNI KOHAR, F42110048 2.JULIANTO, F42110026 3.MARTIN, F42110054 4.

YUVENSIUS FIRDAUS GUNARDI, F42110029

Introduction; the nature of speech acts


George Yule (1985) - the type of act performed by speaker in uttering

a sentence. It used to covers actions such as requesting, commanding, questioning, and informing. Michael McCarthy (1991) - when we say that a particular bit of speech or writing is a request or an instruction or an exemplification we are concentrating on what that piece of language is doing, or how the listener/header is supposed to react; for this reason, such entities are often also called speech acts. Kachru & Smith (2008) - that the notion of speech acts is a simple one: uttering a string of meaningful sounds is not only performing the act of speaking, but also performing a variety of acts such as informing, questioning, ordering, etc.

The Kinds of Speech Acts


1.

Krediler (1998) writes there are 7 kinds of speech acts, there for: Assertive utterances - The speakers and writers use language to tell what they know or believe. Performative utterances - somebody uses a per formative word or expression. Verdictives utterances - the speaker makes an assessment or judgement about the acts of another, usually the addressee. Expressive utterances - an expressive utterance springs from the previous actionsor failure to actof the speaker, or perhaps the present result of those actions or failures.

The Kinds of Speech Acts


Directive utterances - the speaker tries to get the

addressee to perform some act or refrain from performing an act. Commissive utterances - Speech acts that commit a speaker to a course of action. Phatic utterances - the expressions of deep feeling on the part of the speaker.

The Kinds of Speech Acts


2.

Adisutrisno (2008) mentions 4 kinds of them, they are: Declarative utterances. These are utterances that function to make statements, to give information. Interrogative utterances. These are utterances to make questions. Imperative utterances. These are utterances to make commands or requests. Exclamative utterances. These are utterances to exclaim surprise or delight. He also adds that there are two kinds of speech acts, declaration and performatives

John Austin in his book How to do things with words is the first to introductions the idea of Speech Acts, analysing the relationship between utterances and performances

Declaration and Performative


Declaration - the action is the same as saying, the

utterance. The action is performed by the verb of the utterance.


I baptize the baby Michael,

I promise to follow your order, or


I declare the meeting open

Performative - the saying is also doing, but the verbs of

the action are not expressed in the saying. some utterances have three layers of interpretation; locution, illocution, and perlocution.

Three Layers of Interpretation


Locution - the literal meaning of the utterance, that is, the

meaning of the utterance which is carried by the words in the meaning of the utterance which is carried by the words in the utterance and their arrangement or their structure of words. Illocution - the act of the utterance. It is the act which is performed by saying the utterance. It is the underlying force of the utterance or the interpretation of the utterance by the hearer. Perlocution - the consequent effect of the utterance on the hearer, or the overall aim of the utterance. (Adisutrisno, 2008. p. 69-70)

Austin (1962)
Kreidler (1998) concludes that what is said - the

utterance, can be called the locution. What the speaker intends to communicate to the addressee is the illocution. The message that the addressee gets, his interpretation of what the speaker says, is the perlocution. If communication is successful, the illocution and the perlocution are alike or nearly alike.

Austin (1962)
Coulthard

(1985) thoroughly discuss Austins suggestion. Austin considers the senses in which to say something may be to do something and concludes that in issuing an utterance a speaker can perform three acts simultaneously: a locutionary act which is the act of saying something in the full sense of say; an illocutionary act which is an act performed in saying something, the act identified by the explicit performative; and a perlocutionay act, the act performed by or a result of saying.

Austin (1962)
Act A or Locution

He said to me Shoot her meaning by shoot shoot and referring by her to her. Act B or Illocution He urged (or advised, ordered, etc) me to shoot her. Act C or Perlocution He persuaded me to shoot her. (Austin p.101 in Coulthard p.18)

Examples
Some examples of performatives
1.

provided by Adisutrino (2008) are:

Locution : I have a substantial amounts of back pay money. Illocution : an act of offering the hearer to ask for money, borrow some money, or have a dinner treat, depending on the context. Per-locution: The hearer asks for some money, borrows some money, or asks for a dinner treat. Locution : You have eye inflammation . Illocution : an act of ordering the hearer to go to an of ophthalmologist to have eye examination or to treat the eye. Per-locution: the hearer goes to an ophthalmologist or treats the eye.

2.

3.

Locution : Nangis kono, ana culik . (this is very common utterance said by a mother when a son or daughter keeps on crying in Javanese which more or less means Keep crying. There is a kidnapper. Illocution : an act of ordering a son or daughter to stop crying. Per-locution: the child stops crying. Locution : the hedges have grown wild . Illocution : an act of ordering to prune the hedges. Per-locution: the hearer prunes the hedges.

4.

5.

Locution : Tomorrow is a holiday . Illocution : an act of reminding not to go to school, the campus, or the office or the office or an act of inviting to go out, depending on the context. Per-locution: the hearer will not go to school, the campus or the office or agree to go out.
Locution : Mind your head. Illocution : an act of warning to stoop. Per-locution: the hearer stoops.

6.

7. Locution

Illocution does. Per-locution : the hearer becomes careful with what he says or does.
8. Locution

: Mind your Ps and Gs. : an act of threating what one says or

: Traffic is light ahead. Illocution : an act of encouraging the hearer to drive the car faster. Per-locution : the hearer drives the car faster.

Types of Illocutionary Acts


Assertives
Stating, claiming, reporting, announcing

Directives
Ordering, requesting, demanding, begging

Commissives
Promising, offering

Expressives
Thanking, apologizing, congratulating

Declarations
Naming a ship, resigning, sentencing, dismissing,

marrying

Co-operative Principle
Grice (1975) in Adisutrisno, 2008; Coulthard, 1985;

Kachru & Smith, 2008; Yule, 1985) explains that there is a general co-operative principle between speakers and hearers which controls or guides the way they speak.
Maxim of Quantity, Maxim of Quality, Maxim of Relation, and Maxim of Manner.

Co-operative Principle
1. The maxim of Quantity
Make your contribution as informative as required (for the

current purposes of exchange). Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.
2. The maxim of Quality

Do not say what you believe to be false.


Do not say that for which you lack evidence.

Co-operative Principle
3. The maxim of Relation
Be relevant

4. The maxim of Manner


Avoid obscurity of expression. Avoid ambiguity.

Be brief.
Be orderly.

References
1.

Adisutrisno, D. Wagiman. 2008. Semantics; An Introduction to the Basic Concept. Yogyakarta. C.V Andi Offset.

2. Coulthard. 1985. An Introduction to Discourse Analysis. London. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Pearson Education Limitied. Kachru, Yamuna & Larry E. Smith. 2008. Cultures, Contexts and World Englishes. New York. Routledge. Kreidler, Charles W. 1998. Introducing English Semantics. New York. Routledge. McCarthy, Michael. 1991. Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. Yule, George. 1985. The Study of Language; An Introduction. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

Thank You

Questions & Answers.