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Chapter 2

Culture and Organizational Behavior

Case 1: A cultural clash in the entertainment industry


Can any nation protect its cultural characteristics and uniqueness?
In a world of instant communications via the Internet? World wide distribution of movies? World wide transmission of television? World wide travel?

What is the potential of subsidies, trade restrictions, quotas, and governmental control of sustaining a unique national culture?

Case 6A & B
Ellen Moore-Living/working in Bahrain Culture in Bahrain & Saudi Arabia Role of professional women Adjustments to stereotypes When to adjust & when to challenge?

Cases

Case 6: Ellen Moore:


Did Ellen compromise her values (too much) in accepting the Customer Service position? How useful are her tips for women in becoming successful in management?
Meeting fellow employees or others? Obtaining recognition? Adjusting to stereotype female roles (when required)? Finding and using a mentor? Adjusting to the culture? Negotiating with her husband on relative roles?

Defining Culture: An unbounded definition A way of life of a group of people That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society Everything that people have, think, and do as members of society

Narrowing the definition: Sathes Levels of Culture


Manifest culture Manifest culture Expressed values Expressed values
Water line

Basic assumptions

Basic assumptions

Iceberg

Onion

How is Culture Learned?


Enculturation
Non-intentional process that includes all of the learning available as the result of what is in an environment to be learned

Primary Socialization
more intentional learning process that occurs in the family and local community

Subcultures
Develop because a group has an ethnic background, language, or religion that is different from the majority population

Secondary Socialization
Occurs after primary socialization and usually equips people with the knowledge, skills, and behavior to enact adult roles successfully

Classifications of culture Broad classifications: Halls High-Context and Low-Context Cultural Framework Detailed classifications:
Tonnies and Loomiss amplification Kluckhohn and Strodtbecks Variations in Values Orientations Hofstedes definition of culture & Bonds addition Schwartz's classification Trompenaars 7 Dimensions of Culture

Halls High-Context and LowContext Cultural Framework


High-Context
China Egypt France Italy Japan Lebanon Saudi Arabia Spain Syria

Low-Context
Austria Canada Denmark England Finland Germany Norway Switzerland United States

Kluckhohn and Strodtbecks Variations in Values Orientations Framework to describe how different societies cope with various issues or problems Includes 6 Values Orientations
A culture is defined by one or more variations of a values orientation

Kluckhohn & Strodbeck definition of national culture


Type of national culture
Relation to nature Time view Human nature Activity Relationships Spatial

Traditional- Mixed high context


Subjugation Past Evil (theory X) Being Hierarchical Public Harmony Present Mixed Containing Group Mixed

Modern Low context


Mastery Future Good (theory Y) Doing Individualistic Private

Relation to Nature
Subjugation
Accept nature; dont try to change it

Harmony
Coexist with nature (feng shui)

Mastery
Change nature through technology when necessary or desirable

Time Orientation
Past
Emphasizes tradition

Present
Focuses on short-term

Future
Emphasizes long-term

Basic Human Nature


Good
People trust each other

Mixed-Neutral
Generally trusting but need to be cautious and protect self

Evil
Lack of trust

Activity Orientation
Doing
Emphasis on action, achievement, learning

Containing/Controlling
Emphasis on rationality and logic

Being
Emphasis on enjoying life and working for the moment

Relationships among People


Individualistic
People define themselves through personal characteristics and achievement

Group-oriented
People relate to and take responsibility for members of the family, network, or community

Hierarchical
People value group relationships but also within the society emphasize relative ranking of groups

Space Orientation
Public
Space belongs to all

Mixed
There is a combination of public and private space

Private
People consider it important to have their own space

Hofstedes Dimensions of Cultural Values


Focuses specifically on workrelated values Developed in 1980 with data over 116,000 employees in 72 countries Average scores for each country used to develop national profiles to explain differences in work behaviors

Hofstedes definition of culture & Bonds addition


individualism-collectivism uncertainty avoidance power distance masculinity/femininity Confucian work dynamism (time orientation)

Hofstedes definition of culture & Bonds addition


Type of culture Relationships Uncertainty avoidance Power distance TraditionalHigh context Collectivism Extensive High Mixed Combination Combination Combination Modern- Low context Individualism Limited Low

Activity
Time orientation

Femininity
Long term

Combination
Combination

Masculinity
Short term

Individualism/Collectivism
Collectivistic
People value the overall good of the group

Individualistic
People have concern for themselves and their immediate families

Power Distance
The extent to which less powerful members of organizations accept that power is unequally distributed Large
Differences among people with different ranks are acceptable

Small
Less comfortable with power differences

Uncertainty Avoidance
Indicates preferred amount of structure Weak
People prefer unstructured situations

Strong
People prefer more structure

Masculinity/Femininity
Extent to which people prefer
traditional male or female values Feminine
Tender values dominant - personal
relationships, care for others, quality of life, service

Masculine
Tough values dominant - success,
money, status, competition

The Chinese Value Survey


Reaction to the Hofstede study Developed in Chinese based on traditional Chinese values Translated and administered to students in 23 countries 4 dimensions, 3 match Hofstede (PD, I/C, and M/F) plus Confucian Work Dynamism

Long-term/Short-term Orientation
High Confucian work dynamism/Long-term oriented
Concern with future, value thrift and persistence

Low Confucian work dynamism/Short-term oriented


Oriented toward past and present, respect for tradition but here and now is most important

Schwartz's classification
Focuses on universal aspects of individual value content and structure Based on issues that confront all societies
The nature of boundaries between the individual and the group. How to support responsible behavior. How to regulate the relation of people to the social and natural world.

Embeddedness Versus Autonomy


Embeddedness People view others as inherently part of collectives. Meaning in life comes from social relationships & shared way of life & goals. Autonomy Individuals seen as autonomous, bounded entities who find meaning in their own uniqueness Intellectual autonomy - people follow their own ideas and value curiosity, creativity, and openmindedness Affective autonomy - individuals independently pursue positive experiences that make them feel good

Hierarchy Versus Egalitarianism


Hierarchy
The social system has clearly defined roles to identify obligations & rules of behavior

Egalitarianism
Think of each other as equals sharing basic human interests that values equality, justice, honesty & responsbility

Mastery Versus Harmony


Harmony
Emphasizes understanding and fitting in with the environment, rather than trying to change it

Mastery
Encourages people to master, change, and exploit the natural and social environment for personal or group goals

Trompenaars Dimensions of Culture


Dimensions represent how societies develop approaches to managing problems and difficult situations Over a 14 year period, data collected from over 46,000 managers representing more than 40 national cultures

Trompenaars 7 Dimensions of Culture


Particularism vs. Universalism Collectivism vs. Individualism Affective vs. Neutral Relationships Diffuse vs. Specific Relationships Ascription vs. Achievement Relationship to Time Relationship to Nature

Universalism Versus Particularism


Particularist
Circumstances and relationships influence judgments of what is good or true

Universal
Judgment of what is good or true applies to every situation

Individualism Versus Communitarianism


Communitarian
Emphasizes group membership, social responsibility, harmonious relationships, and cooperation

Individualist
Focus on self, personal freedom, and competitiveness

Specificity Versus Diffusion


Level of particularity or wholeness used by the culture to define different constructs Diffuse
Focus on conceptual wholeness and relationships of all kinds are valued Small public spaces and larger private spaces

Specific
Objective, break things down into small parts Large public spaces and smaller private spaces

Achieved Status Versus Ascribed Status


Ascription
Believe people are born into influence, and who you are, your potential, and your connections are all important

Achievement
Emphasize attainment of position and influence through a demonstration of expertise

Inner Direction Versus Outer Direction


Outer-directed
Believe virtue is outside the person and located in nature and relationships

Inner-directed
See virtue as being inside the individual and believe that conscience and convictions are internal

Sequential Time Versus Synchronous Time


Synchronic
Do several activities simultaneously, the time for appointments is approximate, and interpersonal relationships are more important than schedules

Sequential
Do one thing at a time, make appointments and arrive on time, and generally stick to schedules.

The World Values Survey


Study of sociocultural and political change Collected data from more than 65 societies Four waves of data collection: 1981, 1990-1991, 1995-1996, and 1999-2001

Traditional Versus Secular-Rational Orientations Toward Authority


Traditional
Values reflect preindustrial society and the centrality of the family

Secular-Rational
Opposite preferences to traditional

Survival Versus Self-Expression Values


Survival
Put priority on economic and physical security over self-expression and quality of life

Self-expression
Opposite preferences to survival

Do the Frameworks Explain Differences?


Represent average behavior within a culture Countries classified similarly may still be very different Reliability may vary Range of differences on any dimension exists within the population of a single country Can explain differences in individual peoples behavior within the same country

Convergence or Divergence?
Closer communication and trade links Worldwide markets and products

Different cultural interpretations Need to maintain cultural identity

Implications for Managers


Understanding culture important even in home country Organizations stakeholders could be from another culture Need to look for underlying cultural meanings