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Chapter 2

Culture and Organizational Behavior

Case 1: A cultural clash in the entertainment industry

Can any nation protect its cultural characteristics and uniqueness?
In a world of instant communications via the Internet? World wide distribution of movies? World wide transmission of television? World wide travel?

What is the potential of subsidies, trade restrictions, quotas, and governmental control of sustaining a unique national culture?

Case 6A & B
Ellen Moore-Living/working in Bahrain Culture in Bahrain & Saudi Arabia Role of professional women Adjustments to stereotypes When to adjust & when to challenge?


Case 6: Ellen Moore:

Did Ellen compromise her values (too much) in accepting the Customer Service position? How useful are her tips for women in becoming successful in management?
Meeting fellow employees or others? Obtaining recognition? Adjusting to stereotype female roles (when required)? Finding and using a mentor? Adjusting to the culture? Negotiating with her husband on relative roles?

Defining Culture: An unbounded definition A way of life of a group of people That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society Everything that people have, think, and do as members of society

Narrowing the definition: Sathes Levels of Culture

Manifest culture Manifest culture Expressed values Expressed values
Water line

Basic assumptions

Basic assumptions



How is Culture Learned?

Non-intentional process that includes all of the learning available as the result of what is in an environment to be learned

Primary Socialization
more intentional learning process that occurs in the family and local community

Develop because a group has an ethnic background, language, or religion that is different from the majority population

Secondary Socialization
Occurs after primary socialization and usually equips people with the knowledge, skills, and behavior to enact adult roles successfully

Classifications of culture Broad classifications: Halls High-Context and Low-Context Cultural Framework Detailed classifications:
Tonnies and Loomiss amplification Kluckhohn and Strodtbecks Variations in Values Orientations Hofstedes definition of culture & Bonds addition Schwartz's classification Trompenaars 7 Dimensions of Culture

Halls High-Context and LowContext Cultural Framework

China Egypt France Italy Japan Lebanon Saudi Arabia Spain Syria

Austria Canada Denmark England Finland Germany Norway Switzerland United States

Kluckhohn and Strodtbecks Variations in Values Orientations Framework to describe how different societies cope with various issues or problems Includes 6 Values Orientations
A culture is defined by one or more variations of a values orientation

Kluckhohn & Strodbeck definition of national culture

Type of national culture
Relation to nature Time view Human nature Activity Relationships Spatial

Traditional- Mixed high context

Subjugation Past Evil (theory X) Being Hierarchical Public Harmony Present Mixed Containing Group Mixed

Modern Low context

Mastery Future Good (theory Y) Doing Individualistic Private

Relation to Nature
Accept nature; dont try to change it

Coexist with nature (feng shui)

Change nature through technology when necessary or desirable

Time Orientation
Emphasizes tradition

Focuses on short-term

Emphasizes long-term

Basic Human Nature

People trust each other

Generally trusting but need to be cautious and protect self

Lack of trust

Activity Orientation
Emphasis on action, achievement, learning

Emphasis on rationality and logic

Emphasis on enjoying life and working for the moment

Relationships among People

People define themselves through personal characteristics and achievement

People relate to and take responsibility for members of the family, network, or community

People value group relationships but also within the society emphasize relative ranking of groups

Space Orientation
Space belongs to all

There is a combination of public and private space

People consider it important to have their own space

Hofstedes Dimensions of Cultural Values

Focuses specifically on workrelated values Developed in 1980 with data over 116,000 employees in 72 countries Average scores for each country used to develop national profiles to explain differences in work behaviors

Hofstedes definition of culture & Bonds addition

individualism-collectivism uncertainty avoidance power distance masculinity/femininity Confucian work dynamism (time orientation)

Hofstedes definition of culture & Bonds addition

Type of culture Relationships Uncertainty avoidance Power distance TraditionalHigh context Collectivism Extensive High Mixed Combination Combination Combination Modern- Low context Individualism Limited Low

Time orientation

Long term


Short term

People value the overall good of the group

People have concern for themselves and their immediate families

Power Distance
The extent to which less powerful members of organizations accept that power is unequally distributed Large
Differences among people with different ranks are acceptable

Less comfortable with power differences

Uncertainty Avoidance
Indicates preferred amount of structure Weak
People prefer unstructured situations

People prefer more structure

Extent to which people prefer
traditional male or female values Feminine
Tender values dominant - personal
relationships, care for others, quality of life, service

Tough values dominant - success,
money, status, competition

The Chinese Value Survey

Reaction to the Hofstede study Developed in Chinese based on traditional Chinese values Translated and administered to students in 23 countries 4 dimensions, 3 match Hofstede (PD, I/C, and M/F) plus Confucian Work Dynamism

Long-term/Short-term Orientation
High Confucian work dynamism/Long-term oriented
Concern with future, value thrift and persistence

Low Confucian work dynamism/Short-term oriented

Oriented toward past and present, respect for tradition but here and now is most important

Schwartz's classification
Focuses on universal aspects of individual value content and structure Based on issues that confront all societies
The nature of boundaries between the individual and the group. How to support responsible behavior. How to regulate the relation of people to the social and natural world.

Embeddedness Versus Autonomy

Embeddedness People view others as inherently part of collectives. Meaning in life comes from social relationships & shared way of life & goals. Autonomy Individuals seen as autonomous, bounded entities who find meaning in their own uniqueness Intellectual autonomy - people follow their own ideas and value curiosity, creativity, and openmindedness Affective autonomy - individuals independently pursue positive experiences that make them feel good

Hierarchy Versus Egalitarianism

The social system has clearly defined roles to identify obligations & rules of behavior

Think of each other as equals sharing basic human interests that values equality, justice, honesty & responsbility

Mastery Versus Harmony

Emphasizes understanding and fitting in with the environment, rather than trying to change it

Encourages people to master, change, and exploit the natural and social environment for personal or group goals

Trompenaars Dimensions of Culture

Dimensions represent how societies develop approaches to managing problems and difficult situations Over a 14 year period, data collected from over 46,000 managers representing more than 40 national cultures

Trompenaars 7 Dimensions of Culture

Particularism vs. Universalism Collectivism vs. Individualism Affective vs. Neutral Relationships Diffuse vs. Specific Relationships Ascription vs. Achievement Relationship to Time Relationship to Nature

Universalism Versus Particularism

Circumstances and relationships influence judgments of what is good or true

Judgment of what is good or true applies to every situation

Individualism Versus Communitarianism

Emphasizes group membership, social responsibility, harmonious relationships, and cooperation

Focus on self, personal freedom, and competitiveness

Specificity Versus Diffusion

Level of particularity or wholeness used by the culture to define different constructs Diffuse
Focus on conceptual wholeness and relationships of all kinds are valued Small public spaces and larger private spaces

Objective, break things down into small parts Large public spaces and smaller private spaces

Achieved Status Versus Ascribed Status

Believe people are born into influence, and who you are, your potential, and your connections are all important

Emphasize attainment of position and influence through a demonstration of expertise

Inner Direction Versus Outer Direction

Believe virtue is outside the person and located in nature and relationships

See virtue as being inside the individual and believe that conscience and convictions are internal

Sequential Time Versus Synchronous Time

Do several activities simultaneously, the time for appointments is approximate, and interpersonal relationships are more important than schedules

Do one thing at a time, make appointments and arrive on time, and generally stick to schedules.

The World Values Survey

Study of sociocultural and political change Collected data from more than 65 societies Four waves of data collection: 1981, 1990-1991, 1995-1996, and 1999-2001

Traditional Versus Secular-Rational Orientations Toward Authority

Values reflect preindustrial society and the centrality of the family

Opposite preferences to traditional

Survival Versus Self-Expression Values

Put priority on economic and physical security over self-expression and quality of life

Opposite preferences to survival

Do the Frameworks Explain Differences?

Represent average behavior within a culture Countries classified similarly may still be very different Reliability may vary Range of differences on any dimension exists within the population of a single country Can explain differences in individual peoples behavior within the same country

Convergence or Divergence?
Closer communication and trade links Worldwide markets and products

Different cultural interpretations Need to maintain cultural identity

Implications for Managers

Understanding culture important even in home country Organizations stakeholders could be from another culture Need to look for underlying cultural meanings