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# Instrumentation and Control Systems Presentation

2006 Greg Heitkamp This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0402616.) Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author's) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Science Foundation (NSF).

Digital
Storing information often in a series of 1s and 0s or binary numbers. The process can be used to do calculations or sending pulses to regulate instrumentation or other electronic equipment turning it on/off or regulating the use of materials such as the flow of liquid through a valve. In instrumentation and process control this accomplished by concerting an analogue signal into a digital signal to control the process. A non-electronic example would be smoke signals or a beacon.

Analogue
An analog or analogue signal is any continuously variable signal. It differs from a digital signal in that small fluctuations in the signal are meaningful within a given scale range from a small to large signal. Analog is usually thought of in an electrical context, however mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic, and other systems may also use analog signals. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analogue_signal A great example of an analogue device is a Wrist Watch with hands that move.

Binary
Having the base of 2 for number system with two digits 0 and 1. Basis of electronic signal signals used in computers. Creates two states for the binary signal on or off, 0 being off and 1 being on. There is no state in between the device is either on or off. Often referred to as Boolean Logic

Microprocessor
A silicon based processing chip or logic chip designed as the heart of the computer, contains all the necessary information to run a computer speed measured in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). These chips have areas for comparing numbers or doing calculations called registers. http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci212568,00.html

## Good example: Digital Clocks and Wrist Watches

Fuzzy Logic
The ability of a machine to answer questions that are not yes or no questions. Fuzzy logic use 0 and 1 as the extremes of yes and no but answers the degrees of maybe. Fuzzy logic works much closers to that of the human brain. It is subset of Boolean logic use to fill the concepts of a partial truth. An example of such is a half full glass of water is .50 of full.

Neural System
In information technology, a neural network is a system of programs and data structures that approximates the operation of the human brain. A neural network usually involves a large number of processors operating in parallel, each with its own small sphere of knowledge and access to data in its local memory.
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/gDefinition/0,294236,sid7_gci212648,00.html

## Good example: Joystick for a computer game

Sensors
Devices such as a photocell that respond to a signal or stimulus. A device that measures or detects a realworld condition, such as motion, heat or light and converts the condition into an analog or digital representation. These devices are use in manufacturing plants to tell how many items are in a package such as the example CDs to fill a container for packaging or to the number of containers fill case for shipment. http://www.answers.com/sensors&r=67 Good examples: motion detectors and burglar alarms

Actuators
One that activates, especially a device responsible for actuating a mechanical device, such as one connected to a computer by a sensor link. http://www.answers.com/actuators&r=67 An actuator is the mechanism by which an agent acts upon an environment. The agent can be either an artificial intelligent agent or any other autonomous being (human, other animal, etc). http://www.answers.com/actuators&r=67 Examples: human hand, leg, arm, Part Picking Robot, Switches

Stepper Motors
A mechanism that causes a device to be turned on or off, adjusted or moved. The motor and mechanism that moves the head assembly on a disk drive or an arm of a robot is called an actuator. http://www.answers.com/actuators&r=67

A good example printer motor moves the laser head cartridge across the paper.
http://computer.howstuffworks.com/inkjet-printer2.htm for the picture

Synchro Motor
A type of rotary transformer fixed to rotor which attached to a motor and can be adjusted. The current is adjusted to keep the rotor and motor operating at a synchronized speed. The result of this action causes the parts to work in unison.

Good Examples: the gun turret on a naval destroyer and the film and sound of older movies before microelectronics.

Open-loop Control
A control loop operated by human intervention or does not have a feedback loop to self adjust.

Example A fan that plugs into the wall with no switch to turn on or off.
Plug fan into outlet power on Fan operates at the speed of the motor Fan operates to fast to much air movement blows papers of desk Unplug fan to shut off

Closed-loop Control
A control-loop operated by a feedback loop allowing self adjusting of the loop. A mechanical, optical, or electronic system that is used to maintain a desired output.

Fan plugged in

Fan turned on

## Fan speed can be adjusted or turned off

Instrumentation
Instrumentation is defined as "the art and science of measurement and control". Instrumentation is used to refer to the field in which Instrument technicians and engineers work. Instrumentation also can refer to the available methods of measurement and control
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumentation

Good example: the gauges that control the boilers for the school heating system

## Standards Addressed in this Unit

Standard 2: Students will develop an understanding of the core concepts of technology.
Y: The stability of a technological system is influenced by all the components in the system especially the feedback loop. DD: Quality control is planned to ensure that the product ,service, or system meets established criteria. FF: Complex systems have many layers of controls to provide information

Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of the relationships among technologies and connections between technology and other fields of study
H: Technology innovation often results when ideas, knowledge, or skills are shared within a technology, among technologies or across other fields. J: Technological progress promotes the advancement of science and mathematics.

## Standards Addressed in this Unit continued

Standard 17: Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use information and communication technologies.
M: Information and communication systems allow information to be transferred from human to human, human to machine, and machine to machine. P: There are many ways to communicate information, such as graphics and electronic means. Q: Technological knowledge and processes are communicated using symbols, conventions, icons, graphic images, and languages that incorporate a variety of visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli