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From Ardipithecus to Homo
Fossil Hominins: General Trends Toward Homo Sapiens
bulbous cranium Short face compared to ape Vertical carriage of head Hands and Forelimbs Adapted to Tool Making and Use Bipedal Structure of Postcranial Skeleton
Model of Human Evolution: Ardipithicus to Australopithecines
ramidus to Australopithecines Australopithecus afarensis to A. africanus: Gracile Australopithecines Paranthropus robustus and boisei: Robust Australopithecines—Dead end? A. africanus to Homo habilis: Rise of tool manufacture?
Model of Human Evolution: Homo habilis to Sapients
habilis to H. erectus: Global spread; increased tool assemblage H. erectus to H. sapiens: Tool specialization and population explosion H. neanderthalensis: Dead end? Homo sapiens: (Future) End of the Line?
Fossil Trends: Encephalization (Cranial Capacity Increase)
ramidus: ca. 300-350 cc. Australopithecus. afarensis: 390-500 cc; av. 440 cc A. africanus: 435-530 cc; av. 450 cc A./P robustus: 520 cc, one specimen A.P. boisei: 500-530 cc; av. 515 cc.
).) 50 kg (110 lb.) Weight (est.4 million years ago (mya) Location: Middle Awash River Valley. heavier than Lucy . NE Ethiopia Size: 120 cm (4 ft.Ardipithecus ramidis: The “Rooted Ground Floor Ape” Ardi: “Ground Floor” (Afar) Rama: “Root” Pithecus: “ape” Date: 4.
Ardipithecus ramidus: Reconstructed Features Cranial capacity: 300-350 cc. probably omnivore and/or fruit-eater Significant prognathism (projection of lower face) Feet: opposable toe with no arches Quadrupedal in trees Faculative biped on the ground: could walk short distances. . Teeth: apelike with reduced canines.
Ardipithecus Ramidus: Overview .
Australopithecines and Homo: Overview .
erectus: 750-1250 cc. H. av: 1450 H. av. (s. av. habilis: 500-800 cc. 1000 cc Neanderthal: 1300-1750 cc. av.) sapiens: 900-2350 cc. 680 cc.Homo habilis to Homo sapiens H. 1400 .
not locomotion) Enlarged thumb Straight.Fossil Trends: Forelimbs and Hands Shortened forelimb Hands (manipulation. noncurved finger Enhanced finger sensitivity .
toes not curved . bowl-shaped pelvis Femoral head (ball of femur at pelvis) angled and strengthened Lengthened hindlimb Angle of knee: femur “slopes” to pelvis Platform (arched) structure of foot Nonopposable big toe. wide.Fossil Hominins: General Trends--Bipedalism S-shaped vertebrae (backbone) Short.
Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis) and Us (Homo sapiens) Note the Following: Shorter (3’6”) Longer arms Curved fingers Shorter lower legs Greater prognathism Sloped forehead Smaller cranial capacity What are the Similarities? Hint: it’s all related to bipedalism .
afarensis and H. Fine Points .Bipedalism: A. sapiens compared.
When We Became Bipedal (According to Gary Larson) “Hey! Look! No hands!” (Does he look like Lucy to you.?) . . .
note: Sagittal crest (ate a lot of veggies) Massive lower jaw (mandible) Flatter face Massive cheek bones (zygomatic arch) . africanus (top).Gracile and Robust Australopithecines For A. note: Somewhat rounder skull No Sagittal crest Prognathous jaw For Paranthropus boisei.
.Summary of Australopithecines Cranial capacity increased marginally All australopithecines had Sloping foreheads Prominent brow ridges Prognathous lower face and jaws Bipedal postcranial skeletons Robust forms probably were dead ends Graciles likely evolved toward Homo.
africanus Right: H. habilis Note: Different Cranial Capacities Brow Ridge Size .Australopithecus and Homo Compared—Frontal View Left: A.
africanus Bottom: H.Australopithecus and Homo Compared—Side View Top: A. habilis Compare: Mass of Jaws Size of Crania Prognathism .
africanus’s postorbital constriction than that of H. erectus .Postorbital Constriction Left: Homo erectus Right: Australopithecus africanus Note the narrower constriction of A.
) Toolmaking Technique Hammerstone used to strike A core (lump of stone) to knap A Flake (stone chip) Note: Stone has to be crystalline (so it will fracture predictably) .Homo habilis: The First Known Toolmaker Note the following: Face is much flatter Reduced brow ridge (supraorbital torus) Larger cranial capacity (680 cc.
Homo habilis According to Gary Larson .
Australopithecines and Homo Compared I Cranial capacity Australopithecines: 400-530 cc Homo: 500-2300 Maximum braincase width Australopithecines: low on skull Homo: near top Postorbital constriction Australopithecines: marked Homo: moderate to slight .
not flaring .Australopithecines and Homo Compared II Supraorbital torus (brow ridge) Australopithecines: large to moderate Homo: large to slight Zygomatic arch Australopithecines: large. flaring Homo: small.
no chin H: Not massive Prognathism slight to nonexistent. Chin present in sapients Molars and premolars Australopithecines: large. afarensis with diastema Homo: small .Australopithecines and Homo Compared III Facial size relative to brain case Australopithecines: large Homo: small Jaw A: Massive and prognathic.
africanus: sagittal keel or absent H.Australopithecines and Homo Habilis Compared: Skulls General trends Encephalization: Cranial capacity increases Dentition: Cheek teeth are reduced Sagittal Crest (where chewing muscles attach) A./P. habilis: absent . robustus and boisei: pronounced A.
robustus/boisei: very pronounced A. africanus: less pronounced H.Australopithecines and Homo Habilis Compared: Skull/Face Braincase A./P. habilis: most rounded of the three Zygomatic arch A. habilis: far less pronounced than the australopithecines . africanus: more rounded H. robustus/boisei: less rounded A./P.
indicate powerful grip (arboreal) Indications of greater manipulative skill Larger blood supply to hand than earlier hominids Evidence of greater nerve supply Feet: existing fragments indicate modern form: Remains lacked toes .Homo habilis: Hands and Feet Hands Curvature of finger bones are apelike.
including End scraper Side scraper Burin Utilized flakes of unknown function Belongs to Lower Paleolithic . a core tool Several flake tools.Tool Traditions: Oldowan Named after Olduvai Gorge Among the finds at Olduvai: Side chopper.
Manufacturing Choppers Procedure Knapper strikes a spherical piece of stone Flake falls off opposite side Tool flipped over and procedure repeated Several blows create a cutting edge Requirements reflect Intelligence Planning and foreknowledge of design Knowledge of breakage pattern of rock Hand-eye coordination .
Oldowan Tradition End chopper Heavy duty scraper Flake scraper Spheroid Hammerstone Chopper Horn core tool or digger .
less sloping More rounded occipital torus endocasts indicate hemispheric asymmetry Homo erectus and Homo sapiens .Homo habilis and Homo erectus Compared to H. habilis. H erectus had: Larger brain (1000 cc vs 680 cc average) Forehead flatter.
now like ours Pelvis: Bowl shaped Angle of Thighbone .Homo erectus or ergaster Note: Apelike but larger cranium Postcranial Skeleton Vertebrae: S Shaped Ribcage: Not funnel shaped.
sapiens: vertical. sapiens: slight or absent Occipital torus: H. erectus: present H. erectus: prominent--extending as a bar H. low and flat H.Homo erectus and Homo Sapiens: Cranium (Braincase) Forehead (Frontal) H. erectus: sloping. sapiens: slight or absent . indicating frontal lobe Supraorbital torus (brow ridge) H.
vestige of crest? H. erectus: pronounced H. erectus: present. sapiens: slight or absent Postorbital constriction H.Homo erectus and Homo sapiens: Cranium and Face Sagittal keel H. sapiens: slight or nonexistent .
with small orbits and nasal opening Prognathism (jutting jaw) H. erectus: Relatively large. erectus: Pronounced H. sapiens: Relatively small. with large orbits and nasal opening H. sapiens: minimal or nonexistent .Homo erectus and Homo sapiens: Facial Skeleton Facial skeletion H.
Homo erectus and Homo sapiens skulls Compare: Brow ridges (supraorbital tori) Prognathism Constriction behind eye sockets (postorbital constriction) Presence versus absence of chin .
but edge is still sharp Part of Lower Paleolithic .Tool Traditions: Acheulean Named after St. Acheul Characteristics of Acheulean handaxe Bifacial: both sides knapped Symmetrical in breadth Shaped to a point on one end The edge is thin and sharp Broad end is curved.
Acheulean Axe as “Swiss Army Knife”. like the Acheulean Not quite so symmetrical Olduvai specimen: transitional type? . Abbevillean variation Swiss Army Rock? Sharp tip: used for piercing Thin edge: used for cutting (hide or meat off bone) Broad end: used for chopping or scraping Abbevillean Variation: Bifacial.
from 25 to 75 Each flake blow must be precisely positioned Core must be turned over again and again to maintain symmetry to keep edge straight All the exterior rind (cortex) was removed . finely shaped Dozens of flakes removed.Manufacturing Acheulean Handaxes A demanding task Symmetrical.
Abbevillian and Acheulean Handaxes Left: Abbevillian. fine retouch . rough retouch Right: Acheulean. Note asymmetry. Note symmetry.
Note heavy brow ridge. Note arc-like dental arcade. prognathism Right: Mandible.Homo heidelbergensis or “Archaic” Homo sapiens Left: Skull. absence of chin . absence of diastema.
piercing) is struck .g. perforation.Manufacturing Levallois Cores and Flakes Knappers Draw outline of flake on stone module Strikes flake of desired shape Requires knowledge of breakage pattern of rock Prepares rock beforehand to control how rock breaks when struck Ensure right shape (e. cutting.
Levallois Flake and Flaking Technique .
Homo neanderthalensis: Skeleton Left: Homo neanderthalensis Right: Homo sapiens Compare Relative thickness of bones Breadth of ribcages Size of skulls .
Homo neanderthalensis: Cranium Left: H. absence of prognathism and brow ridge . sapiens: Note rounded cranium. neanderthalensis: note larger cranial size. presence of chin. prognathism. brow ridge Right: H. occipital bun.
both Lower Paleolithic . France is a Neanderthal site Belongs to Middle Paleolithic More sophisticated than Oldowan or Acheulean.Mousterian Tradition Positively identified with Neanderhals Le Moustier.
and Handaxes .Mousterian Tool Assemblage Sample includes Scrapers. Points.
shell.000 BP Primary Attributes Shift from flake tools to blades Subsistence on greater range of animal and plant species Larger sites Increase of bone. antler.Upper Paleolithic: The Great Leap Forward? Probably begins about 50. and other materials for tools . ivory.
. with grave goods Appearance and elaborate use of symbols and works of art.Upper Paleolithic: Associated Attributes Associated Attributes Greater use of “imported” goods: raw materials obtainable only from great distances from inhabited sites which suggests trade More elaborate burials.
2. yrs BP Acheulean: from ca 1. yrs BP . blade traditions are shorter lived Oldowan: from ca.5 m.Upper Paleolithic: The Blades Blades begin roughly 40.9 m.000 Years BP Comparative efficiency Levallois cores may produce 5 flakes Many more blades could be produced from same core--and with longer cutting edge Unlike other traditions.
Soluterean Willow leaf point.Upper Paleolithic Assemblage Upper Paleolithic Tools (left to right): biconical bone point. Perigordian flint blade. prismatic blade core. double-row barbed harpoon point (various sites in France) .
chinless mandible. hominin postcranial skeletal parts Fauna: Komodo dragons (large lizards).000 to 74. in 2004 Other specimens found since then Age range: 18. Indonesia.000 BP Main attributes: rounded skull. and giant rats Artifacts: Several small stone implements of sizes appropriate to H. small elephantlike stegodons.Homo florensiensis Small skull found in Liang Bua Cave. florensis. Flores Island. .
314-315.Homo Floresiensis: The Controversy Microcephalic human or separate species? Same species: absence of thyroid gland essential to growth. Different species: no chin. Park text Overall consensus: likely a separate species but not all share in that conclusion . other features similar to sapient form. erectus Further debate: see pp. skull structure similar to H.
To Sum Up: Representatives of Five Species The species: 1. Australopithecus africanus 3. Homo neanderthalensis . Homo habilis 4. Homo erectus 5. Australopithecus afarensis 2.
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