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# May 2012

DESIGN FOR TWISTING MOMENT IN SLAB PANELS USING WOOD ARMER METHODOLOGY
NIMISH PRABHUKHANOLKAR

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AGENDA
Background Mx, My, Mxy: A Closer Look

## The Wood Armer Equations

Sign Convention Fundamentals of the Approach Spreadsheet formulation Case-Study 1: MH3 Inlet Manhole Old Whittington Case-Study 2: Regular Panel Study General Conclusions

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BACKGROUND
QC Comment from Client on a Project to consider Mxy

Objective of the study was the understand the impact of Mxy on the designs as they stand currently and establish a way forward
Hence it is required to create a platform wherein the design can accommodate Mxy as well, subject to constraints of time and effort.

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## THE ORIGINS OF MXY

The equilibrium equation written for the foregoing plate element is - :

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## WOOD ARMER EQUATIONS

Bottom Reinforcement(M is +ve for tension at bottom or equivalently Face 1) Mx* = Mx + |Mxy|; My*=My+|Mxy|
WOOD ARMER BASICS

If either Mx* or My* is found to be negative, it is changed to zero and My* or Mx* is adjusted.
For eg if Mx* <0 then My* = My+|Mxy2/Mx| and Mx* is set to zero. and vice versa In doing so, if My* is negative, no bott. reinft required

If both Mx* and My* are negative, then no bottom reinforcement is required.

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## WOOD ARMER EQUATIONS(CONT.)

Top Reinforcement(M is -ve for tension at top or equivalently Face 2):

## Mx* = Mx - |Mxy|; My*=My - |Mxy|

If either Mx* or My* is found to be positive, it is changed to zero and My* or Mx* is adjusted.
WOOD ARMER BASICS

For e.g. if Mx* >0 then My* = My-|Mxy2/Mx| and Mx* is set to zero. In doing this, if My* is positive, no top reinft required

If both Mx* and My* are negative, then no bottom reinforcement is required.
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SIGN CONVENTION
The same signs as outputted by STAAD can be taken for the whole calculation provided face 1 and face 2 is identified.

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## THEORETICAL BASIS OF WOOD ARMER APPROACH

Johanssens Yield Criterion

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## METHODOLOGY FOR SOLVING THE MXY PROBLEM

A Spreadsheet tool was prepared for automating the process of getting Wood Armer moments for all area elements in model The Spreadsheet calculates and finally gives a graphical output of the calculation.

The output is in terms of Indices, which are directly useful to the designer (introduced ahead)

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The Spreadsheet takes the STAAD Forces Data, Node and Plate Geometry data as input

It calculates the Wood Armer moments for each plate for each load combination input and compares against the maximum NON Wood Armer Moments in each direction per face

The final output is a graphical display of MAXIMUM Wood Armer moment of a plate divided by the maximum Non Wood Armer Moment for the whole panel, in that direction, on that face. Note that the Spreadsheet plot may be a mirror of your actual STAAD Plot.
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The results of the spreadsheet should be easily usable to the Design Engineer, with constrains of time for quick design and decisions , and also lend themselves to quick interpretation of the effects of Mxy. Hence an index was used which stands for the ratio of the Wood Armer Moment at a plate element, in X/Y direction , divided by the maximum NonWood Armer moment encountered ANYWHERE in the panel.

This enables us to think in the following way If the index is X at a plate, then the actual design moment including Wood Armer is X times the STAAD summary moment corresponding to that face.

If X>1.03, it is displayed in RED in the plot, liable for further corrective action
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CASE STUDIES:
Case-Study 1: MH3 - Inlet Manhole for Old Whittington Project

Case Study 2: Example analysis was done for many regular panel geometries and also applying it to some complex real project geometries

EXAMPLES

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MH3 GEOMETRY

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## Face 2 Spreadsheet -99.607 -107.121

Table. Comparison of Wood Armer calculations using the summary versus the spreadsheet The values stand for the design values after considering the twisting moment

The above table shows that spreadsheet WA moments can be more than summary Wood Armer moments
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## CASE STUDY 1: CONCLUSIONS

Mxy effect was considerable along both directions at the mid-span

Summary sheet was not enough to get the maximum design values, the actual maximums exceeded the summary table values by a small margin
Spreadsheet tool can be used to identify problem areas and check those areas for the higher demand, and reinforce accordingly (possibly give additional steel)

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## CASE STUDY 2: REGULAR PANELS

To get a general idea of twisting behavior, some regular panels of representative sizes were applied a hydrostatic load and evaluated by the spreadsheet The panel sizes considered were 3X3,3X6,5X5,7X7,9X9,7X12. For the 3X6 and 5X5: 4 boundary conditions were considered for each panel size Fixed on 3 sides, Fixed on 2 sides, Pinned on 3 sides , Pinned on 2 sides For the 7X7, 9X9, 7X12 panels only Fixed on 3 sides considered
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## EXAMPLE INDICES OF 3X6 FFF PANEL

D1

D2

D3
Actions Maximum Moment Mx(Wood Armer) Maximum Moment My(Wood Armer) Maximum Moment Mx( Non-Wood Armer) Maximum Moment My( Non-Wood Armer) Evaluation and Summary Face 1 Face 2 7.43 5.646 7.007 3.973 1.060368203 1.421092374

D4
Units -13.276kN.m -14.663kN.m -12.966kN.m -14.394kN.m 1.023908684kN.m 1.018688342kN.m

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D1

D2

D3

D4

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D1

D2

D3

D4

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## CASE STUDY 2: RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

Link to tabular file for results For a panel of the same size and load, the magnitude of the twisting moment effect would be highest for pinned-pinned condition, and lowest for fixed-fixed-fixed condition Even for small panel sizes, the pinned on two sides panels were considerably affected by twisting moments

Generally, it is seen that exceedence of moments from maximum non-Wood Armer moment is of the order of 2030%.
For larger panel sizes, even for fixed on 3 sides, at least one direction was affected by twisting moments. (D3 direction)
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GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

It is found that Mxy moments have a considerable effect atleast in ONE direction for most geometries. Hence it would be prudent to have a brief look at Mxy design in all cases. The highest Indices as noticed in the study were of the order of 20-30%, pointing to Wood Armer moment being 1.2-1.3 times higher than the otherwise maximum out of plane bending Mx or My
CONCLUSIONS

Engineers should be especially alert for Mxy in case they are thinking of curtailing reinforcement.

Spreadsheet can be used for an accurate assessment of effect of Mxy moments to take design decisions in problem areas.

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SAMPLE RUN

QUESTIONS.??

The end

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