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A.PAVAN KUMAR
MACHINE FOUNDATION ANALYSIS-ONLY
PRACTICAL VIEW



Objective of machine foundation analysis
Types of machine foundation
Codes available DIN 1024,IS 2974,VDI
Guidelines,ACI 351
Machine foundation analysis
Modelling options Solid element,Shell Element
Softwares Available ANSYS,SAP 2000, etc
Real Problem -2*125MW Turbo Generator Foundation


AGENDA :-




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DESIGN OVERVIEW
Design Criteria:

The basic goal in the
design of a machine
foundation is to limit its
motion to amplitudes that
neither endanger the
satisfactory operation of
the machine nor disturb
people working in the
immediate vicinity.
(Gazetas 1983)
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Performance Criteria
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Possible options of foundations
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Possible options of foundations
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STRUCTURAL DRAWING OF TG BUILDING
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Schematic diagram of machine foundation system
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MODELLING OPTIONS FOR FOUNDATION-
SOLID SHELL,PLATE
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MODELLING OPTIONS FOR SOIL-
SPRINGS,CONTINUM
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ISOLATION PRINCIPLE and
TRANSMISSIBILTY
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REAL PROBLEM-TABLE TOP FOUNDATION-TG
FOUNDATION-NAGAI PROJECT
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SCOPE
The objective is to study the dynamic behavior of Turbine Generator
(TG) pedestal under normal operating conditions and also emergency
conditions for 2X150 MW Nagai Thermal Power Plant located at
Nagapattinam (Dist), Near Okku & Venkidanathangal Villages,
Tamilnadu State, India.

The following checks with relevant structural analysis have been carried
out to accomplish the above object.
Natural Frequency check Modal analysis is carried out in ANSYS
software to elicit the natural frequencies of machine-foundation system
for all significant modes of vibration. The natural frequencies are
checked with relevant provisions of DIN 4024 Part1.
Vibration amplitude check The absolute maximum amplitudes are
obtained by performing steady state harmonic analysis of STG
foundation in ANSYS and checked according to VDI-guideline 2056,
Machine group T
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Project Reference Drawings / Documents
1
Design Basis Report for Civil, Structural and Architectural Works
Machine Manufacturers Drawings
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2165-T-1-VVG-C-501 Turbine Foundation Loads
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2165-T-1-VVG-C-502 Turbogenerator Acoustic Enclosure Foundation Loads
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2165-T-1-UMP-C-501 Turbogenerator Foundation Drawing Plan View & Sections
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2165-T-1-VVB-M-501 Turbogenerator General Outline Plan View & Sections
CODES FOR DESIGN OF BASE RAFT
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DIN 4024 (Part1)
Machine Foundations - Flexible structures which supports
machines with rotating elements
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DIN ISO 1940-1 Balance Quality Requirements for Rotors in a constant (rigid) State
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IS 2974 (Part 3)
Design and Construction of Machine Foundations Foundations For Rotary Type Machines (Medium and
High Frequency)
DOCUMENTS WE RECEIVE,CODES NEED TO REFERRED
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Material

Property

Value

Units

Remarks
Concrete, C40
Density 25 kN/ cum
Characteristic
Strength
40 N/ Sq mm IS-456 (2000)
Modulus of Elasticity 32500 (Dynamic) N/ sq mm IS-2974 (Part 3)
MATERIAL DETAILS
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Normal operation Vacuum Load Generator F Turbine D
LOAD POINT FY MX MZ FY FY FX FZ FY FY FX FZ
G1 -650 - - -89 - 135 135 -1790 - -39 -39
G2 -650 - - 89 - 135 135 1790 - -39 -39
G3 -650 - - -89 - 135 135 -1790 - -39 -39
G4 -650 - - 89 - 135 135 1790 - -39 -39
G5 - - - - - 49 - - - -
G6 - - - - - 88 49 - - - -
T1 -268 - - 81 -343 213 213 - 747 -16.08 -16.08
T2 -122 - - - -196 111 111 - 427 -7.32 -7.32
T3 -392 - - - -196 205 205 - 427 -23.52 -23.52
T4 -122 - - - -196 111 111 - 427 -7.32 -7.32
T5 -268 - - -81 -343 213 213 - 427 -16.08 -16.08
T6 -392 - - - -196 205 205 - 747 -23.52 -23.52
T7 -141 - - - -98 49 49 - 427 -8.46 -8.46
T8 -542 - - - - 189 189 - 213 -32.52 -32.52
T9 - - - - - 300 75 - 608 - -
T10 - - - - - 300 75 - - - -
T11 - - - - - 162 648 - - - -
I1 -30 - - - - 0 0 - - -1.8 -1.8
I2 -30 - - - - 0 0 - - -1.8 -1.8
I3 -30 - - - - - - -1.8 -1.8
I4 -30 - - - - 0 0 - - -1.8 -1.8
R1 -30 - - - - 0 0 - - -1.8 -1.8
R2 -30 - - - - 0 0 - - -1.8 -1.8
P1 -51 -22 75 - - 17 17 - - -3.06 -3.06
P2 -51 29 86 - - 17 17 - - -3.06 -3.06
P3 -51 -22 75 - - 17 17 - - -3.06 -3.06
P4 -51 29 86 - - 17 17 - - -3.06 -3.06
Seismic
Non return valve
Throttle and
Regulation valve
Interceptor Valve
Generator
Turbine
DEAD LOAD Friction load due to expansion
LOADS WE RECEIVE FROM MECHANICAL PEOPLE
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DESCRIPTION AND MODELING OF STRUCTURE
The geometry is considered as per foundation outline drawing. The
columns are assumed to be fixed on top of base raft at FL ()4.05m. The
top deck level is considered as FL (+) 12.0m & FL(+) 11.2m for Turbine &
Generator respectively. It can be seen from the geometry that the TG
pedestal is built-up of large sections. Hence, the solid brick finite elements
are used to represent the geometry for dynamic analysis. The solid model
is built in ANSYS software based on this geometry and then the finite
element is created by mapped mesh using brick elements. The mapped
volume mesh contains only hexahedron elements.

Basic geometric dimensions are:

Top deck thickness at E.L.11.2 = 1700mm
Sizes of columns = 1600X1600, 2540X1600, 2500X1600 mm
Thickness of deck at E.L.+12.0 = 2500mm
.

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SOLID MODEL-ANSYS
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MESHED SOLID MODEL-ANSYS
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SUPPORT CONDITIONS
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MODAL ANALYSIS NATURAL FREQUENCIES
The Mode-Frequency analysis for natural frequency and mode
shape determination is carried out in ANSYS. The assumptions
made in this analysis are
The structure has no time varying forces, displacements,
pressures, or temperatures applied, which means that this is
free vibration analysis.
There is no damping in the structural system.
The structure has constant stiffness and mass effects.
3D MASS 21 element (from ANSYS element library) is used to
represent machine mass application points on top of deck.
The natural frequencies are obtained for first seventy five
modes of vibration.
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Estimation according to DIN 4024 Part 1, Clause 5.3.2:

1. First order natural frequency, f
1
> 1.25*f
m
or
f
1
s 0.8*f
m
, f
m
= Machine operating frequency, 50 Hz



f
1
= 2.8586 Hz s 0.8*50 = 40 Hz Hence condition 1 is o.k.

2) Higher order natural frequencies

Higher order natural frequencies that approach the service frequency:

f
n
s 0.9*f
m
and

f
n+1
> 1.1*f
m


This condition is not met

If condition 2a) is not met, it shall suffice that f
n
is less than f
m
where n is equal to 10 or 6.

f
10
= 27.3487 s 50 Hz

Hence clause 2b) is satisfied.

From the above frequency table, it can be seen that the fundamental structural frequencies are
within 30 Hz where the predominant portion of applied mass is participated..
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TUNING OF MASS AND STIFFNESS
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MODE MODE NATURAL FREQ.
(Hz)
MACHINE
FREQ. (Hz)
FREQ. SAPARATION
(%)
X-TRANS 1 2.85863 50 94.28274
Y-TRANS 4 17.6915 50 64.617
Z-TRANS 2 3.58554 50 92.82892
ROT-X 4 17.6915 50 64.617
ROT-Y 1 2.85863 50 94.28274
ROT-Z 4 17.6915 50 64.617
Estimation according to IS 2974 Part 3:
From the above Table it is clear that the Frequecy saparation in any mode is atleast
20% which meets the criterion specified in IS 2974 Part 3.

FREQUENCY SEPARATION CRITERIA
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MODE 1
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MODE 2
30
MODE 3
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MODE 4
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HARMONIC ANALYSIS VIBRATION AMPLITUDES

The harmonic response analysis for obtaining forced vibration amplitudes.
This analysis solves the time-dependent equations of motion for TG
foundation undergoing steady-state vibration. The assumptions made in
this analysis are

The entire structure has constant stiffness, damping, and mass effects. The
structure damping of 2% is considered in the harmonic analysis for normal
operating condition in accordance with Cl. 9.1.1 f) of IS 2974 Part-3.
All loads and displacements vary sinusoidal at the same known frequency
(50 Hz in present analysis case).

The harmonic load is specified in ANSYS with three pieces of information
the amplitude, the phase angle, and the forcing frequency range . The
amplitude is the maximum value of the load. The phase angle is a measure
of the time by which the load lags (or leads) a frame of reference. The
phase angle is required only if multiple loads are present that are out of
phase with each other.
The bearing locations are shown indicatively below.

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Unbalanced forces at bearings Bg-1 to Bg-4 are distributed on the foundation top as per the given
Drawing. The excitation forces applied in the analysis are listed in below table.
.
The unbalanced force can be acting at all the bearings simultaneously, with random distribution of
the relative phase angles.

The peak vibration amplitudes are calculated by performing harmonic response analysis by applying
unbalance forces at all bearing points in both horizontal and vertical directions. 90
o
phase difference
is considered between horizontal and vertical directions.

The unbalanced force at each bearing point is applied at two points on top of foundation
symmetrical to centerline of rotor. The lever arm effect due to horizontal force acting at bearing
point at higher elevation is considered in form of push and pull on top of foundation on either side
of rotor. The harmonic analysis is carried out with different relative phase angles and it is noted that
the maximum displacement amplitude is occurring for the case of same phase angle for unbalance
forces applied at all bearing points. The unbalanced forces at each bearing point are calculated and
tabulated as below.

BEARING UNBALANCED FORCE AT RATED SPEED (50
Hz)
LOCATION
(Kips) (KN)
#1 8.2 36.3 TURBINE
#2 8.2 36.3 TURBINE
#3 8.2 36.6 GENERATOR
#4 8.2 36.6 GENERATOR
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VIBRATION AMPLITUDES
The maximum displacement amplitudes obtained from the harmonic
analysis for 2% damping are tabulated below.The same results are
presented graphically.The vibration amplitudes are listed on top of deck
at corresponding bearing locations.

Vibration Amplitude Table for 2% Damping Normal Operating
Condition BEARING
LOCATION
2% DAMPING
NODE UX (m) UY (m) UZ (m)
1 1750 2.22835
9
2.09498
75
0.71631
44
1793 2.10007
8
1.80023
42
0.87175
15
2 1560 1.45596
5
0.64421
27
1.56679
55
1524 2.10007
8
1.80023
42
0.87175
15
3 4459 0.47658
4
0.79919
64
0.70322
27
4468 0.98307
8
2.40016
57
0.54803
8
4 4607 1.0681 1.43276
93
0.74757
93
4760 1.20160
5
0.58945
06
1.02184
84
UX, MAX 1750 2.22835
9
- -
UY, MAX 4468 - 2.40016
57
-
UZ, MAX 1560 - - 1.56679
55
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From the above table it can be seen that the vibration amplitudes in both
directions are very less and well within the manufacturers specified limits and
also VDI guideline. This is also obvious from the natural frequency table in Sec.
3.0 that the contribution of vibration modes to amplitude response in
concentrated around lower modes only and its effect is tapered off towards
higher modes.
Rating according to VDI-guideline 2056, Machine group T (Refer to chart in
next page)
At 50 Hz: Amplitudes < 12.5 m Rating: Good
(2% Damping)
Hence, the foundation system adopted is classified as Good for normal
operating conditions.


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Vibration Amplitude in Y direction for node 4468
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DYNAMIC PROPERTIES
In Veletsos Model, the Dynamic Impedance Expressed as:

{ } ) ( ) (
0 0 0
a c ia a k K I
d d s
+ =
Dynamic Equilibrium Equation:
| |{ } | |{ } | |{ } { } ) (t F X K X C X M = + +

Mode Vertical Horizontal Rocking Torsion
Static Spring
Constants
Dynamic
Impedance

=
1
4
v v
v
R G
K

=
2
8
h h
h
R G
K
( )
=
1 3
8
3
r r
r
R G
K
3
16
3
t t
t
R G
K =
( )
v v v
c ia k K
0
+ ( )
h h h
c ia k K
0
+ ( )
r r r
c ia k K
0
+ ( )
t t t
c ia k K
0
+
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES
The classic single lumped mass machine-foundation-soil system with
circular foundation on elastic half-space summarized by Richart,
Woods, Hall (1970):
A Frequency Independent Model, Applied for
0 < a
0
<1.0
a
0
: Dimensionless frequency.
Motion Spring Constant Reference
Vertical Timoshenko & Goodier (1951)
Horizontal Bycroft (1956)
Rocking Borowicka (1943)
Torsion Reissner & Sagoci (1944)

=
1
4 R G
K
y

8 7
) 1 ( 32

=
R G
K
x
( )
=
1 3
8
3
R G
K
rz
3
3
16
R G K
ry
=
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES
s
V
R
a

=
e
0
Dimensionless frequency, a
0
Where:
: machine speed equipment;
R: foundation radius foundation;
V
s
: shear wave speed soil.
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES
b
1
to b
4
in expression above are dimensionless functions of . Given by Veletsos for different type of
soils.
Veletsos Model Dynamic Stiffness and Damping
Coefficients:
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES
Veletsos Model, k
x
& c
x
to
Frequency Relation in
Horizontal Mode:

c
x
is independent of a
0
,

or the
frequency.

k
x
in sandy soil is kind of
sensitive to a
0
,

or the
frequency.

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