MODULE-4


Social-technological environment is an imp factor which is beyond the control of business. These factors should be analysed before formulating business strategies. Socio cultural-technological environment.

Social environment means the social organisation & development of social institutions etc. more educated society leads to good social environment.

A company’s social obligation is to operate in an ethically, socially and environmentally responsible ways as a requirement for corporate citizenship.

“Corporate Social Responsibility is a commitment to improve community wellbeing through discretionary business practices and corporate resources.” By Philip Khotler

we will devote ourselves to the progress and development of society and well being of people through our business activities.“recognising our responsibilities as industrialists. . thereby enhancing the quality of life throughout the world ”.

        Contribution to Society Fairness and Honesty Cooperation and team Spirit Untiring Effort for Improvement Courtesy and Humility Adaptability Gratitude Profit is the reward and measure of contribution to society .

 Companies that got into trouble due to CSR issues  DASANI MINERAL WATER ( PART OF COCA-COLA ) .

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. “we peel them.” This omitted par-frying the chips. adding a dextrose solution and salt. freezing them.  McDonald’s was forced to withdraw an advert that claimed that after selecting its potatoes. slice them. fry them and that’s it.

   IBM UK Reinventing Education Partnership programme Interactions and sharing of knowledge through a web-based technology . Culture of openness and sharing of good practice .the “Learning Village” software.

 Infosys –motivating their employees for NGO’s .

      Cause Related Marketing Corporate social Marketing Cause Promotions Socially Responsible Business Practices Corporate Philanthropy Community Volunteering .

TV – Campaign on voting importance . in-kind contributions. or other organization resources to increase awareness and concern about a social cause. Provides funds.

g. donate 10% of the price of each product sold .  Commits to making a contribution or donating a percentage of revenues to a specific cause based on product sales e.

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"  .It is the first time that the world’s leading companies have made a commitment to channel a portion of their profits from sales of specially– designed products to the  Global Fund to support AIDS programmes for women and children in Africa.

 Supports the development and/or implementation of a behavior change campaign .

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most often in the form of cash grant. . and/or in-kind /service . Makes a direct contribution to a charity or cause. donations.

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 Supports and encourages employees. and/or franchise members to volunteer their time to support local community organization and causes. . retail partners.

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Body Shop magazine .  Adopts and conducts discretionary business practices and investments that support social causes to improve community wellbeing and protect the environment e. -. community trade. environmental friendly Process.g.

  Take Good Care of the Environment and the Community. The Community and the Environment will take good care of you .

Relationships with customers. suppliers and employees Secondary Involvement . Primary Involvement .Relationships and impacts ancillary to use products sold  .

Proactive approach.Go beyond what is required by law. promote positive change . do what is required by law. no more Social Responsibility .   Social Obligation . mitigate negative effects Social Responsiveness .Meet minimum regulations.

   Social obligation : comply with EPA. state and local laws Social responsibility :clean up pollution beyond requirements Social responsiveness :develop technology to reduce pollution .

Social responsiveness :improve quality of work life.   Social obligation : Comply with wage and hour laws minimum benefits Social responsibility :provide added benefits to keep out unions. .

      Ethical dimension Ethical issues Sound investment strategy Pollution free environment Protecting the interest of the consumer Regional imbalances .

Environmental factors 1.Social report should take care of efforts and contributions towards social & environmental responsibilities.Social factor  Consumer care community care  Environmental care  Society care & .

 Natural resources i.soil. Forests etc.land ii. . Plant & animals iii.

     Resource endowments Weather & climate factors Topographic factors Location aspects scenery .

      Flood Draughts Earthquakes Cyclone Heat & cold waves Volcanic eruptions .

Govt organisations at all stages.protection & conservation of ecological system by education. It includes providing clean water .   EA means planning for sustainable use of resources .training and awareness and legislation. Co-operation with the Govt and non.protection of forests from further degradation and at the same time have meaningful project assist the social development .

 Technology policy of the Govt is significant element of the technology environment. Ex.  Access to global technology could help the firms to improve their competitiveness & retain their place in the world market.1991 is the base for advance technology in India.reliance  .

 To utilize inner skills and capabilities to the full extent to create new ideas to develop quality products  .  To open employment opportunities.  To adopt modernisation process and competitive technique to increase productivity and sales.To attain technological competence through access to global technology and be self reliant by making maximum use of scarce resources effectively.

  To develop & encourage the competitive domestic firms to acquire the place in the global market To contribute qualitative products which involve cost effectiveness and reliable performance. .

The assignment of sale & licensing of all forms of intellectual property (IP) except trade mark. skill & managerial training.trouble shooting.formulae. . instructions. • • Know how & technical expertise in the form of feasibility studies.diagrams.guides.functioning. operation.plans.engineering designs. Provide technical knowledge required for installation.models. servicing as per need.

QC.OPERATIONAL LEVEL :Mfg skills.trouble shooting.design & engineering skills are imparted.  DUPLICATIVE LEVEL:Scope is higher than the mfg.investment capability required to expand capacity purchase & integrate FT.  ADAPTIVE LEVEL :Self reliance level imported technology are adapted & improved .maintainance & procurement skills.  .  INNOVATIVE LEVEL:Innovative skills based on formal R&D that are required to generate newer technology or products.

TECHNOLOGY LICENSING AGREEMENT JOINTVENTURES .        FDI Sources of funds are: IBRD (reconstruction development) IFC ADB Public & mutual fund investment in foreign companies.

machinery & equipment Licensing agreement Design transfer Turn-key-projects .     Training or Employment of Technical Experts Supply of component.

  Selection of Technology Absorption .

Exemption from the payment of customs duty on goods imported for use in Govt. funded R&D projects. Excise duty waiver for 3 years on goods produced using indigenously developed technology duty patented in USA .Japan or in any country of European Union .   IT relief on R&D expenditure.

 Direct financial support to R&D centre.  Tax deduction for sponsored research programs. Allowances on P&M developed on the basis of indigenous technology.Provision of accelerated Dep. TECHNOLOGY PROMOTION FOR SELF-RELIANCE  Annual national conference (Department of Science &Industrial Research) -DSIR  Partial financial support  Assistance to develop program (Program Aimed at technologicalSelf Reliance ) -PASER  Consultancy support (CDC)-Consultancy Development Centre  .

  India’s R&D expenditure is still low compared to major industrial economies. . in that year. making it the seventh largest country. According to UNESCO data. for gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) measured at PPP. in dollar terms. on a per capita basis and in terms of its ratio to GDP (about 0. India’s R&D expenditure has increased from 10 billion dollars in 1996 to 20 billion dollars in 2000.8 percent of GDP in 2005 according to official estimates).

.  China was the fourth largest country with R&D expenditure. On the other hand. especially compared to spending in the private sector. a large share of government R&D outlays in India is not utilized effectively. estimated at 49 billion dollars in 2000 (UNESCO 2005).

S. up from 111 in 1990 (NSF 2006). In 2003. . and inventors from China filed 1. patent applications. patent applications. inventors from India filed almost 1.034 U.200 U.S. up from 58 in 1990.

Torrent Pharmaceuticals. General Electric. Dabur. Reddys Research Foundation. Cypress Semiconductors. Aurobindo Pharma and Wockhardt limited . Ranbaxy. HewlettPackard.IBM.Biocon. ST Microsystems andUnilever have contributed significantly to a sharp rise in patent filings from India in the 2000. Intel. Orchid Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Major Indian firms that showed an increase in patents granted in the first half of the 2000s include CSIR.  The Indian-based R&D centers of companies such as Texas Instruments.

The system supports 12 major information networks in the country and many of these have access to international database.     NISSAT – (national information system for science and technology ) It operates in the directions of improvement in the existing information handling tools and techniques for the growth of indigenous technologies. Technical collaborations Technical-cum-financial collaborations .

  • •    FIPB (Promotion board ) FIPC (promotion council) FIIA (implementation agency) IP&ID (investment promotion & infrastructure cell) SIA (secretariat for industrial assistance ) RBI BUSINESS OMBUDSMAN .

     Imp of energy Educate about energy conservation Operational improvement Process improvement Installation of additional facilities for recovering waste heat and other energy recycling devices. .

 Indian industries consume 50% of energy produced Required: Lack of energy conservation attitude & sensitivity Lack of knowledge and database Education & training on energy conservation   .60-70% of energy is importing 4 lakh crores to bridge the energy shortfall in next 15 years.  Per capita consumption of energy is lower in india 1345 units -16522 units in canada.

     Transport industry --40% Industrial sector -25% Agriculture –9% Household -19% Others – 7% .

Source/technology Biogas plant Biomas based power Efficient wood Solar energy Small hydro Wind energy Ocean thermal Sea wave power Potential/availability 12 x 1000000 17000MW 12 X 100000 5 MILLION Whr/yr 10000 mw 20000 mw 50000 mw 20000 mw Potential exploited 2.7 x 1000000 70 mw 20 x 1000000 25 mw 250 mw 1000 mw Nil Nil Tidal power 9000 mw nil .

The change in the water level between high tide and low tide creates tidal currents in coastal areas.  Tidal power is believed to be the next generation renewable power.Tidal energy is the result of the sun and the moon’s gravitational pull on the tides.When the earth rotates. which can be forceful enough to drive a turbine. the tides move – ebbing and flowing. and is considered to be competitive with wind power in the future.  .

now it is the time to live for the nation” .“There was a time to die for the nation .

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