UNIT -5

LECTURE ON EMI & EMC
By:
AJAY YADAV
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR
DEPT. OF ECE
AIET, JAIPUR
BEFORE EMI&EMC
 CONCEPT OF RADIATION
 Maxwell’s equations
} }
} }
}
}
· + =
u
+ = ·
· ÷ =
u
÷ = ·
= ·
= ·
encl encl
E
B
encl
A d E
dt
d
I
dt
d
I s d B
A d B
dt
d
dt
d
s d E
A d B
Q
A d E
) ( ) (
0
0 0 0 0
0
 


 


 
 
c µ c µ
c
Gauss’s law
Gauss’s law for
magnetism
Farady’s law
Ampere’s law
Displacement Current & Maxwell’s Equations
 Maxwell’s equations: Differential form
 Oscillating electric dipole
First consider static electric field produced by
an electric dipole as shown in Figs.
(a) Positive (negative) charge at the top (bottom)
(b) Negative (positive) charge at the top (bottom)
Now then imagine these two charge are moving
up and down and exchange their position at every
half-period. Then between the two cases there is
a situation like as shown in Fig. below:
What is the electric field
in the blank area?
Maxwell’s Equations and EM Waves
 Oscillating electric dipole (cont’d)
Since we don’t assume that change propagate instantly once new position
is reached the blank represents what has to happen to the fields in meantime.
We learned that E field lines can’t cross and they need to be continuous except
at charges. Therefore a plausible guess is as shown in the right figure.
Maxwell’s Equations and EM Waves
 Oscillating electric dipole (cont’d)
What actually happens to the fields based on a precise calculate is shown in
Fig. Magnetic fields are also formed. When there is electric current, magnetic
field is produced. If the current is in a straight wire circular magnetic field is
generated. Its magnitude is inversely proportional to the distance from the
current.
Maxwell’s Equations and EM Waves
 Oscillating electric dipole (cont’d)
What actually happens to the fields based on a precise calculate is shown in
Fig.
Maxwell’s Equations and EM Waves
 Oscillating electric dipole (cont’d)
This is an animation of radiation of EM wave by an oscillating electric dipole
as a function of time.
Maxwell’s Equations and EM Waves
 Oscillating electric dipole (cont’d)
Maxwell’s Equations and EM Waves
At a location far away from the source of the EM wave, the wave
becomes plane wave.
+
+
-
-
-
-
+
+
V(t)=V
o
cos(et)
• time t=0
• time t=t/e
one half cycle later
X
B B
+
+
-
-
x
z
y
 Oscillating electric dipole (cont’d)
Maxwell’s Equations and EM Waves
 Oscillating electric dipole (cont’d)
A qualitative summary of the observation of this example is:

1) The E and B fields are always at right angles to each other.
2) The propagation of the fields, i.e., their direction of travel away from the
oscillating dipole, is perpendicular to the direction in which the fields
point at any given position in space.
3) In a location far from the dipole, the electric field appears to form closed
loops which are not connected to either charge. This is, of course, always
true for any B field. Thus, far from the dipole, we find that the E and B
fields are traveling independent of the charges. They propagate away from
the dipole and spread out through space.
Maxwell’s Equations and EM Waves
In general it can be proved that accelerating electric charges give rise to
electromagnetic waves.
What is EMI and EMC ?
• An electromagnetic disturbance which may degrade the
performance of an equipment (device, system or sub-system) or
causes malfunction of the equipment, is called electromagnetic
interference (EMI).
• Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is a near perfect state in
which a receptor ( device , system or subsystem) functions
satisfactorily in common electromagnetic environment, without
introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbance to any
other devices / equipments / system in that environment.



Electronic equipment is subjected to a variety of electromagnetic interference sources.
Careful design is required to guarantee compatibility with environment- Intersystem
EMI
Conducted noise
AC power circuit
Electric Motors
Power Line
Lightning
Radio & TV
Broadcast
Ignition
Mobile
Radio
Ship
Radar
Handy
Talkie
Tele
communications
CE
RE
RF
Amplifier
Mixer

IF
Amplifier
Detector

Audio
Amplifier
Power
Supply
Oscillator
Speaker
Antenna
Electric field coupling
Conductive coupling
Magnetic field coupling
Common impedance coupling
EXAMPLE - Intersystem
EMI
Introduction
Elements of an EMI Situation
–Source "Culprit"
–Coupling method "Path"
–Sensitive device "Victim"
SOURCE
PATH
VICTIM
CAUSES OF EMI
 Sources
 Refrigerator, washing machine, electric motors.
 Arc welding machine.
 Electric shavers, AC, computers.
 Fast switching digital devices, ICs.
 Power cords of computers, UPS etc.
 Air craft navigation and military equipments.
 Victims
 Communication receivers.
 Microprocessors, computers.
 Industrial controls.
 Medical devices.
 House hold appliances.
 Living beings.


EFFECTS OF EMI
Momentary disturbance in TV and radio reception due to
operation of mixer-grinder / electric shavers / a passing
vehicle etc.
Reset of computers and loss of data.
Burn out of sensitive cells / components.
Change of setting of status of control equipments.
Failure of pace maker implanted in a patient due to a
‘walkietalkie’.
False initiation of electro explosive detonator.
Malfunctioning of flight controlling system due to use of
laptop by passenger.
Biological hazards.

A BASIC EMI SITUATION
EMI
Source
Coupling
Path
Victim
of EMI
(Emitter)
(Media) (Receptor)
Impedance? Impedance? Impedance?

• Voltage measuring device - high impedance circuit

• Voltage generative device - high impedance circuit

• E-field source/victim - high impedance circuit

• Current measuring device - low impedance

• Current generating device - low impedance

• H-field source / victim - low impedance
Interference coupling mechanisms
coupling path
Direct coupling
Radiated
coupling
Near field
coupling
source victim
COUPLING PATH
Direct coupling
Coupling via
power or signal
lines
Common
impedance
coupling
DIRECT COUPLING
Coupling via
power or signal
lines
DIRECT COUPLING
Common
impedance
coupling
COUPLING PATH
Near field coupling
Magnetic or
inductive
coupling
Electric or
capacitive
coupling
NEAR FIELD COULING
Magnetic or
inductive
coupling
NEAR FIELD COULING
Electric or
capacitive
coupling
COUPLING PATH
Radiated coupling
Wave
impedance

Field
generation

Let’s see how this all got started
Dead Smart Guys
• First Transmitters: Spark Devices
– Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) clarified and
expanded on
– James Clerk Maxwell’s Electromagnetic
Theory




– Marconi: first use & patent


Hertz Maxwell
Marconi
How Does EMI Affect Electronics?
• Radiated and conducted interference
– Conducted Interference Enters and Exits Equipment through
Wiring and Cabling
– Radiated Interference Enters and Exits Equipment through Wiring
and Enclosure Penetration
Radiated Susceptibility Radiated Emissions
Conducted Susceptibility
Conducted Emissions
Interference to TV Reception
Two Interfering Signals Injected into TV
No Interference
EMI/EMC COUPLING MODES
Coupling modes
Antenna mode Common mode
Differential
mode
Common “Coupling Modes”
Common and Differential Mode
• Crosstalk (cabling and conductors)
• Field to cable (“Antenna”)
• Conducted (direct)
• Field to enclosure


Crosstalk
(cable-to-cable coupling)
SOURCE
VICTIM
Radiated Coupling: Field to Cable
Loop Area
Induced Current
Electromagnetic Wave
Coupling proportional to: E/H Field, Loop Area, Frequency
COMMON and DIFFERENTIAL MODE
• COMMON-MODE: “Line to Ground”
• DIFFERENTIAL MODE: “Line-to-Line” (Normal Mode)
V
C
M
V
DM
I
Nois
e

Radiated Coupling: Field to Cable
Patient Monitor
Loop Area
Induced Current
Electromagnetic Wave Radio
V
C
M
Instrumentation Interference
Interference Current, If
Ideal Response
Frequency (Hz)
EKG Signal
Real Response
Frequency (MHz)
NOISE
Effect of Modulation
Interference Current, If
How Does EMI Affect Electronics?
• Electrostatic Discharge & Transient Pulses
• ESD can induce “glitches” in circuits, leading to
false triggering, errors in address & data lines
and latch-up of devices
– Upset
– Damage
– Degradation leading to future failure(s)

Gee, the humidity
is low in here.
What’s this for?
Filtering
Interference Current
EKG Signal
C
C
Interference Current
EKG Signal
Please, I’m very
ticklish
Surge Coupling
• Lightning and pulse sources cause high-energy transients into
power and data cables
Indirect Direct
Digital Equipment Sources
Fourier Analysis
F(t)
Log F f =
1/T
2f 3f
T
A
Spectrum of a Square Wave
T
A
Log F
F(t)
f =
1/tt
f =1/tt
r

t
r
t

Spectrum of a Trapezoidal Wave
(Characteristic of Digital Devices)
Equipment Emissions Limits
Emissions Limits @ 3 meters
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
10 100 1000 10000
Frequency (MHz)
d
B
u
V
/
m
FCC B
CISPR B
FCC A
CISPR A
The decibel (dB)
• The dB is used in Regulatory Limits (FCC, CISPR, etc.)
• The dB is a convenient way to express very big and very small numbers
• The “Bel” was named after Alexander Graham Bell
Bel = LOG
10
(P
2
/P
1
)
• deciBel provides a more realistic scale:
dB = 10LOG
10
(P
2
/P
1
)
• Voltage & Current are expressed as follows:
dB (V or I) = 20LOG
10
(V
2
/V
1
)

“20LOG” derives from the conversion from Power to Voltage
(ohm’s Law: P = E
2
/R)



Named
after me!
dB
• Can have several reference units:
– Watt: dB above one Watt (dBW)
– Milliwatt: dB above one milliwatt (dBm)
– Volt: dBV
– Microvolt: dBuV
– Microamp: dBuA
– picotesla: dBpT
– Electric Field: dBuV/m
• Radio Receiver Sensitivity ~ 10 dBuV
• E-Field Limit for FCC: ~40-60 dBuV/m
• Distance to moon: 107dBmile (20LOG2.5E+5miles)
• National debt: 128dB$ (10LOG6E+12)

Broadband Sources
• Man-made noise dominates
• Intended transmissions, switching transients, motors, arcing
• Intermittent operation of CW causes transient effects
• Digital Switching
• Inductive kick
• Switch bounce
• Digital Signaling
• Broad spectrum based on pulse width & transition time
• HDTV
• CDMA
• UWB Technologies

Cables - Overview

• Major coupling factor in radiating emissions from an equipment and coupling of
emissions from other sources into an equipment
• Acts as radiating “antenna”, receiving “antenna”, and cable-to-cable coupling
mechanism
• External cables are not typically part of the equipment design but the installation
requirements must be considered during the design
• Problem is a function of cable length, impedance, geometry, frequency of the
signal and harmonics, current in the line, distance from cable to observation point
• Frequency Effects: Tied into Cable Wavelength




• For example, wavelength at FM Radio Band (100 MHz) is 1 meter
• Human Body Resonance


ì= c/f = 3X10
8
/frequency
ì = 300/f
MHz

Cables - Length/Impedance
• Efficiency as an antenna - function of length compared to wavelength
• At typical data transfer rates - length is short
• At harmonics or spurs the length may become long
• Impedance mismatch creates a high SWR
How very important
• Frequencies of testing from 26 MHz to 1 GHz
• Corresponding cable lengths:
• L ~ 11 meters @ 26 MHz to 30 cm @ 1 GHz
• “Short” cables can be large contributors to Interference
Problems
– Power cables
– Grounding wires
– Patient cables
– Data cables
– Control harnesses
– Structures!

Cables - Loops
• Emissions are a function of 1) Current; 2) Loop Geometry; 3) Return Path of the Current
• Current flow creates a magnetic field H=I/2tR for a single wire model
• Single wire case is not realistic
• Loop geometry formed by the current carrying conductor and the return line contribute
to the field strength
• Electric field strength:
E f A
I
R
V m MHz
cm
amps
meters
( / ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
. * * = 13
2
2
V ~
I
Area
E (& H)
Filters - Overview
• Passband
• High pass
• Low pass
• Single component, L, Pi, T
• Common mode; differential mode
• Placement
• Components
• Lead length
• Leakage Limitations
Low Pass Filter
Noise Current
EKG Signal
C
C
Noise Current
EKG Signal
Frequency (Hz)
Rejection
EKG Signal
Noise
Attenuation of Noise
Filters - Types
Filters - Components
• Discrete Component Filters
– Component selection
– Lead length considerations
• Power Filter Modules
• Filtered Connectors
– Construction
– Selective loading
• Termination (bonding and grounding)
Circuit Design – Real Performance
Filters
Power Line Filter
Typical Schematic
Signal Line Filter
(Screw-in Type)
Signal Line Filter
Filter - Placement
• Isolate Input & Output
– Establish boundaries with filters between
• Input or Output interfaces and active circuitry
• Digital and Analog
• Compartments and Modules
• Prevent bypass coupling
– Control line exposure on line side of filter
– Use dog-house compartment
– Shielded cables to control exposed cable runs
• Terminate - Terminate - Terminate
– Low impedance to ground termination
– Minimize lead length
Filter Performance
Poor Installation =
Poor Performance


Filter


Filter IN
Filter OUT
Filter Placement
EMC DESIGN

• There are many design considerations that need to
be taken
– Cable wiring
– Connectors
– Grounding
– Shielding

• The reference for good consideration is standard
Shield Concepts
+
-
Field Terminations on Inside
Metal Sphere
“Faraday Cage”
“Ground” 0V Potential
V+
V=0
+
-
Electric Field Coupling
E-Field
V+
Shield Concepts
Magnetic Field Shielding
Common at powerline and low
frequencies;
High-current conditions
I
V
µ >>1
Ferrous Shield
Low residual field
Magnetic Field Coupling
V
I
Effects of Openings
+
-
Metal Sphere
“Faraday Cage”
V=0
V+
V=?
Cable Leakage
+
Radio Frequency Effects
V
RF
~
Shielded Enclosure
RF Source
RF Leakage
V
RF
~
Metal Box
RF Source
L
L ~ /2
Perfect Transmission
Shielding
The Business Card Test
Good to about 1 GHz
Shielding - Overview
• Shields - conductive barriers
– Reflection
– Absorption
• Materials
– Electric field - conductivity
– Magnetic field - permeability
• Discontinuities
– Windows
– Vents
– Seams
– Panel components
– Cable connections
Shielding Effectiveness
SHIELD
Incident Field E
1
Resultant Field
E
2
SE = E
2
/E
1
(dB)
Reflected
E
R
Shielding - Reflection/Absorption
R
R f
E dB
meters Hz
( )
( ) ( )
log(
* *
) = + 322 10
2 3
o
µ
R
f R
H dB
Hz meters
( )
( ) ( )
. log(
* *
) = + 145 10
2
o
µ
R f
P dB Hz ( ) ( )
log( * ) = + 168 10
o
µ
A k t f
dB Hz ( ) ( )
* * * * = µ o
Plane wave occurs when E to H wave impedance ratio = 1
f
R
MHz
meters
( )
( )
>
300
2t
k = 3.4 for t in inches and k = 134 for t in meters
Shielding - Material
Metal Conductivity - o Permeability - µ
Silver 1.05 1
Copper 1 1
Gold 0.7 1
Aluminum 0.61 1
Zinc 0.29 1
Brass 0.26 1
Nickel 0.2 1
Iron 0.17 1000
Tin 0.15 1
Steel 0.1 1000
Hypernick 0.06 80000
Monel 0.04 1
Mu-Metal 0.03 80000
Stainless Steel 0.02 1000
All are good electric field shields Need high u for Mag Field Shield
Shielding - Seams/Gaskets
• Required openings offer no shielding in many applications
• Apertures associated with covers tend to be long or require many contact
points (close screw spacing)
• Large opening treatment
– Screens, ventilation covers, optic window treatments
– WBCO formed to effectively close opening
• Seam opening treatments
– Overlapping flanges
– Closely spaces screws or weld
– Gasket to provide opening contact
– Gasketed SE
SE a L
dB cm ( ) ( )
.
log( * ) = ÷ 115 10
1 2
SE a L
dB in ( ) ( )
.
log( * ) = ÷ 99 10
1 2
Shielding - Penetration
• Conductors penetrating an opening negates the shielding
provided by absorption and reflection
• Cables penetrations require continuation of the shield or
– Conductors require filtering at the boundary
• Cable shields require termination
• Metal control shafts serve as a conductor
– Use non-metallic
– Terminate shaft (full circle)
Grounding - Overview
• Purpose
– Safety protection from power faults
– Lightning protection
– Dissipation of electrostatic charge
– Reference point for signals
• Reference point is prime importance for EMC
• Potential problems
– Common return path coupling
– High common impedance
– High frequency performance
Grounding - Impedance
• Establish a low impedance return
– Ground planes
– Ground straps for high frequency performance
• Establish single point or multipoint ground
– Single point for low frequency or short distance
• Distance
(meters)
< 15/f
(MHz)

– Multipoint for high frequency or long distance
• Distance
(meters)
> 15/f
(MHz)
Bonding
• Bonds should have two basic characteristics
– Low impedance < 2.5 milliohms
– Mechanical & electro-chemical stability
• Low impedance
– Avoid contamination
– Provide for flush junction to maximize surface contact
– Use gaskets or fingerstock for seam bonds
– Provide a connecting mechanism
• Mechanical and electro-chemical stability
– Torque to seat for the mechanical connection
– Lock washers to retain bond
– Allow for galvanic activity for dissimilar metals
Galvanic Scale
Component Selection
T
A
Log F
F(t)
f =
1/T
2f 3f
T
A
Log F
F(t)
f =
1/tt
f =1/tt
r

t
r
t

Spectrum of a Square Wave
Spectrum of a Trapezoidal Wave
(Characteristic of Digital Devices)
Circuit Design –
Component Selection








• Circuits available in an EMI version
• Specify logic of necessary speed - not faster than required
• EMI performance varies between manufacturers

MAX485
MAX487
EMI V
dV
dt
¬ *
Switching Power Supplies
• Two Sources:
– Harmonics of switching power supply
– Broadband emissions due to ringing
waveforms

&
f
f
Underdamped (Ringing) Waveform
• Typical in switching circuits
f 100 MHz+
100s
Volts
10s kHz
dV/dT = 100sMV/s
Broadband (radiated & conducted)
Circuit Design - Summary
• Consider EMI at the beginning
– Understand requirements
– Select components
– Design in protection
• Circuit Design - Layout
– Design in ground planes, guards, segregation
– EMI gains from layout has virtually zero recurring cost
• Grounds and Returns
– Develop a ground scheme
– Consider digital, analog, return, and shield terminations
• Design in hooks
– Provide space for potential fix actions that may be required
Decoupling &
Power Distribution
• Connect all ground pins of high frequency circuits
together in the same ground structure.
• Do not separate, isolate, break or otherwise “cut”
the ground plane.
• Do not separate, isolate, break or otherwise “cut”
the power plane.
• Do not insert impedances into Vcc/power traces.
Isolated Power/Grounding
• Example Trace Layout (Bad Idea!)
Exception: Analog circuit isolation
Top 10 Common Mistakes

1. Improperly shielded cables: The principal
problem is the cable-to-backshell termination
2. Unfiltered cable penetrations
3. High Frequency sources with poor termination:
High frequency sources: signals and power supplies
4. Case seams and apertures: bad/no gasket, or
improper mating surfaces
5. Poor bonding between metal parts of unit
Top 10 Common Mistakes
5. Long ground leads on shields and bonding
conductors
6. No high frequency filtering on analog inputs:
Radiated and conducted immunity
7. Not accounting for the high frequency effects of
ESD
8. Inadequate filters on I/O cables for emissions
9. Inadequately-installed power line filters
The Ten Steps to
Avoiding EMI Problems
1. Signal Termination
2. Layout
3. Decoupling & Power
Distribution
4. Grounding
5. Bonding

6. Filtering
7. Cabling
8. Shielding
9. Surge Suppression
10. CHECKLIST
CHECKLIST
Signal Termination
^
RC Terminations (33 ohms + 27 pF) on
periodic signals
^
Group high frequency sources together;
minimize trace runs of high frequency
signals
^
Don’t source/sink I/O (whether internal or
external) through high frequency devices
^
Position oscillators and crystals away from
I/O and openings in the chassis
^
Snub switching power supply waveforms to
minimize HF energy
Decoupling & Power Distribution
^
Connect all ground pins of high frequency
circuits together
^
0V reference (bond 0V to chassis)
^
Solid power and Ground planes
^
No impedances in Vcc/power traces.
Bonding Checklist
^
Bond 0V to chassis ground
^
Bond 0V to connector frames and shells
^
Bond connector frames to chassis
^
Bond metal frames together
Filtering
^
Filters are installed at enclosure wall
^
LC filter on unshielded cables
^
Plan for capacitor on shielded lines
Cabling
^
Route cables to avoid coupling
^
Use only fully-shielded cables
^
Fully-terminate shield grounds to
metal/metalized connector shels
^
Terminate shells to chassis
Shielding
^
The Business Card Test
^
Use correctly-rated suppressor line-to-line
and line-to-ground
^
Gas Tubes
^
Varistors
^
SAD (Silicon Avalanche Diodes)

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful