# CEVE 101

Fluid Mechanics 2 The Bernoulli Equation

Dr. Phil Bedient

FLUID DYNAMICS THE BERNOULLI EQUATION

The laws of Statics that we have learned cannot solve Dynamic Problems. There is no way to solve for the flow rate, or Q. Therefore, we need a new dynamic approach to Fluid Mechanics.

**The Bernoulli Equation
**

By assuming that fluid motion is governed only by pressure and gravity forces, applying Newton’s second law, F = ma, leads us to the Bernoulli Equation.

**P/g + V2/2g + z = constant along a streamline
**

(P=pressure

g =specific weight

V=velocity g=gravity z=elevation)

A streamline is the path of one particle of water. Therefore, at any two points along a streamline, the Bernoulli equation can be applied and, using a set of engineering assumptions, unknown flows and pressures can easily be solved for.

**The Bernoulli Equation (unit of L)
**

At any two points on a streamline:

**P1/g + V12/2g + z1 = P2/g + V22/2g + z2
**

1 2

Therefore. because the air particle along that streamline.A Simple Bernoulli Example
V2 Z
g = gair
Determine the difference in pressure between points 1 and 2 Assume a coordinate system fixed to the bike (from this system. the air is moving at the speed of the bicycle. V2 = Velocity of the Biker Hint: Point 1 is called a stagnation point. when it hits the biker’s face. the bicycle is stationary. Thus. has a zero velocity (see next slide)
. and the world moves past it).

there is a stagnation point.Stagnation Points
On any body in a flowing fluid. The dividing line (the stagnation streamline) terminates at the stagnation point. The Velocity decreases as the fluid approaches the stagnation point. Some fluid flows over and some under the body. The pressure at the stagnation point is the pressure obtained when a flowing fluid is decelerated to zero speed by a frictionless process
.

Apply Bernoulli from 1 to 2
V2 Z
g = gair
Point 1 = Point 2
P1/gair + V12/2g + z1 = P2/gair + V22/2g + z2
Knowing the z1 = z2 and that V1= 0. we can simplify the equation P1/gair = P2/gair + V22/2g P1 – P2 = ( V22/2g ) gair
.

0765 lbs/ft3 P1 =.0033 x 60 = .475 lbs/ft2 Converting to lbs/in2 (psi) P1 = .0765 lbs/ft3?
We can assume P2 = 0 because it is only atmospheric pressure P1 = ( V22/2g )(gair) = P1 = ((20 ft/s)2/(2(32. what pressure does he feel on his face if the gair= .2 ft/s2)) x .A Simple Bernoulli Example
If Lance Armstrong is traveling at 20 ft/s.198 lbs
.0033 psi (gage pressure) If the biker’s face has a surface area of 60 inches He feels a force of .

we assume that the volume exiting through the hole is trivial compared to the total volume of the pool. If you apply the Bernoulli equation at the surface. assumptions are often made to eliminate one or more variables
Key Assumption # 1
Velocity = 0 Imagine a swimming pool with a small 1 cm hole on the floor of the pool. and therefore the Velocity of a water particle at the surface can be assumed to be zero
. and at the hole.Bernoulli Assumptions
There are three main variables in the Bernoulli Equation Pressure – Velocity – Elevation To simplify problems.

Therefore.
.Bernoulli Assumptions
Key Assumption # 2
Pressure = 0
Whenever the only pressure acting on a point is the standard atmospheric pressure. for any free surface or free jet. pressure at that point can be assumed to be zero. then the pressure at that point can be assumed to be zero because every point in the system is subject to that same pressure.

Bernoulli Assumptions
Key Assumption # 3
The Continuity Equation
In cases where one or both of the previous assumptions do not apply. then we might need to use the continuity equation to solve the problem
A1V1=A2V2 Which satisfies that inflow and outflow are equal at any section
.

we assume V1 = 0 (Volout <<< Voltank) The tank is open at both ends.Bernoulli Example Problem: Free Jets
What is the Flow Rate at point 2? What is the velocity at point 3?
Givens and Assumptions: Because the tank is so large. thus P1 = P2 = P3 = atm P1 and P2 and P3= 0
Part 1:
1
γH2O
Apply Bernoulli’s eqn between points 1 and 2 P1/gH2O + V12/2g + h = P2/gH20 + V22/2g + 0
simplifies to
h = V22/2g solving for V V = √(2gh)
A2
2 3
0
Q = VA
or
Q = A2√(2gh)
.

Bernoulli Example Problem: Free Jets
Part 2: Find V3?
Apply Bernoulli’s eq from pt 1 to pt 3
P1/gH2O + V12/2g + h = P3/gH20 + V32/2g – H Simplify to h + H = V32/2g
1
γH2O
Solving for V V3 =
√( 2g ( h + H ))
A2
2 3
Z=0
.

and you get the continuity equation: A1V1 =A2V2
Therefore If A2 < A1 then V2 > V1 Thus. Flow rate = Q = Area x Velocity
r1A1V1(mass inflow rate) = r2A2V2( mass outflow rate)
If the fluid at both points is the same. then the density drops out. all of the mass that enters the system. water exiting a nozzle has a higher velocity
V1 ->
A1
A2 V2 ->
Q2 = A2V2 Q1 = A1V1
A1V1 = A2V2
. must also exit the system at the same time.The Continuity Equation
Why does a hose with a nozzle shoot water further? Conservation of Mass: In a confined system.

Free Jets
The velocity of a jet of water is clearly related to the depth of water above the hole. the higher the velocity. The greater the depth. Similar behavior can be seen as water flows at a very high velocity from the reservoir behind a large dam such as Hoover Dam
.

the total head is always constant Each term in the Bernoulli equation is a type of head. H Because energy is assumed to be conserved.The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line
Looking at the Bernoulli equation again: P/g + V2/2g + z = constant on a streamline This constant is called the total head (energy). at any point along the streamline.
P/g = Pressure Head
V2/2g = Velocity Head Z = elevation head These three heads summed equals H = total energy Next we will look at this graphically…
.

2: Pitot Tube
1
V2/2g
2
EL
HGL
Measures the Total Head
EL : Energy Line Total Head along a system
P/g
Q
HGL : Hydraulic Grade line
Sum of the elevation and the pressure heads along a system
Z
.The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line
Measures the static pressure Pitot measures the total head 1: Static Pressure Tap Measures the sum of the elevation head and the pressure Head.

then the velocity would be constant.The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line
Understanding the graphical approach of Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade line is key to understanding what forces are supplying the energy that water holds.
EL HGL V2/2g
Point 1: Majority of energy stored in the water is in the Pressure Head Point 2: Majority of energy stored in the water is in the elevation head If the tube was symmetrical. and the HGL would be level
V2/2g
2
P/ g Q
P/g
Z
1
Z
.

5’
4’
2
R = . and then plot the Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line Assumptions and Hints:
P1 and P4 = 0 --.25’
3
4
1’
.V3 = V4 same diameter tube
We must work backwards to solve this problem
1
R = . and Elevation Head at each point. Velocity Head.Tank Example
Solve for the Pressure Head.

5’
2
R = .25’
3
4
1’
.Point 1: Pressure Head : Only atmospheric P1/g = 0 Velocity Head : In a large tank. V1 = 0 V12/2g = 0 Elevation Head : Z1 = 4’
1
4’
R = .

4 lbs/ft3
4’
R = .2) + 1
V4 = 13.25’
3
4
1’
.5’
2
R = .Point 4:
Apply the Bernoulli equation between 1 and 4 0 + 0 + 4 = 0 + V42/2(32.9 ft/s
Pressure Head : Only atmospheric P4/ g = 0
Velocity Head : V42/2g = 3’ Elevation Head : Z4 = 1’
1
γH2O= 62.

Point 3:
Apply the Bernoulli equation between 3 and 4 (V3=V4) P3/62.4 + 3 + 1 = 0 + 3 + 1
P3 = 0
Pressure Head : P3/g = 0
Velocity Head : V32/2g = 3’ Elevation Head : Z3 = 1’
1
4’
R = .25’
3
4
1’
.5’
2
R = .

2) + 1 = 4 P2 = 175.25’
3
4
1’
Elevation Head : Z2 = 1’
.5’
Pressure Head : P2/ g = 2.4 + 3.81’ Velocity Head : V22/2g = .4752/2(32.Point 2:
Apply the Bernoulli equation between 2 and 3 P2/62.4 + V22/2(32.5 lbs/ft2
1
4’
R = .475 ft/s
P2/62.2) + 1 = 0 + 3 + 1
Apply the Continuity Equation
(P.9 V2 = 3.19’
2
R = .52)V2 = (P.252)x13.

Velocity and Elevation heads Hydraulic Grade Line = Sum of the Pressure and Velocity heads
V2/2g=.Plotting the EL and HGL
Energy Line = Sum of the Pressure.81’
V2/2g=3’ V2/2g=3’
.19’
EL P/ Z=4’ HGL Z=1’ Z=1’ Z=1’
g =2.

CEVE 101
Pipe Flow and Open Channel Flow
.

one can solve for the water depth Y.
.Open Channel Flow
Uniform Open Channel Flow is the hydraulic condition in which the water depth and the channel cross section do not change over some reach of the channel Manning’s Equation was developed to relate flow and channel geometry to water depth. Knowing Q in a channel. Knowing the maximum allowable depth Y. one can solve for Q.

. it can only be used as an approximation. Manning’s equation works accurately for man made channels. but for natural streams and rivers.Open Channel Flow
Manning’s equation is only accurate for cases where the cross sections of a stream or channel are uniform.

015.12) Yn = Normal depth (depth of uniform flow)
Area Y
Yn X Slope = S = Y/X
Wetted Perimeter
. .045. .Manning’s Equation
Terms in the Manning’s equation:
V = Channel Velocity A = Cross sectional area of the channel P = Wetted perimeter of the channel R = Hydraulic Radius = A/P S = Slope of the channel bottom (ft/ft or m/m) n = Manning’s roughness coefficient (.

the first step to solving any Manning’s equation problem.Manning’s Equation
V = (1/n)R2/3√(S) V = (1. is to solve for the geometry’s cross sectional area and wetted perimeter: For a rectangular Channel
Yn B
Area = A = B x Yn
Wetted Perimeter = P = B + 2Yn Hydraulic Radius = A/P = R = BYn/(B+2Yn)
.49/n)R2/3√(S)
for the metric system for the English system
Q = A(k/n)R2/3√(S)
k is either 1 or 1. However. Therefore. A and R depend on Yn.49
Yn is not directly a part of Manning’s equation.

The slope is 0. Determine the normal depth that will occur in this channel.Simple Manning’s Example
A rectangular open concrete (n=0.28 = (2Yn)x(1/0. First. apply Manning’s equation Q = A(1/n)R2/3√(S) 2.015) channel is to be designed to carry a flow of 2.47 meters
.006)
Yn
Solving for Yn with Goal Seek
2m
Yn = 0.015) * (2Yn/(2 + 2Yn))2/3 * √(0.006 m/m and the bottom width of the channel is 2 meters. P and R A = 2Yn P = 2 + 2Yn R = 2Yn/(2 + 2Yn) Next.28 m3/s. find A.

015
25’ B=35’
a = 20°
A. P and R for Trapezoidal Channels
Yn θ B
A = Yn(B + Yn cot a) P = B + (2Yn/sin a ) R = (Yn(B + Yn cot a)) / (B + (2Yn/sin a))
.001 ft/ft Concrete Lined n = 0.The Trapezoidal Channel
House flooding occurs along Brays Bayou when water overtops the banks. What flow is allowable in Brays Bayou if it has the geometry shown below?
Slope S = 0.

The Trapezoidal Channel
Slope S = 0.015
25’ 35’
Θ = 20°
A = Yn(B + Yn cot a)
A = 25( 35 + 25 cot(20)) = 2592 ft2 P = B + (2Yn/sin a )
P = 35 + (2 x 25/sin(20)) = 181.2 ft
R = 2592’ / 181.2’ = 14.0003 ft/ft Concrete Lined n = 0.3 ft
.

0003)
Q = Max allowable Flow = 26.49/n)R2/3√(S) Q = 2592 x (1.015) (14.49 / .300 cfs
.3)2/3 √(.015
25’ 35’
Θ = 20°
Q for Bayou = A(1.0003 ft/ft Concrete Lined n = 0.The Trapezoidal Channel
Slope S = 0.

You must find an A. R.03 Grass n=.03 3’
Concrete n=.
. Neglect dotted line segments.015
Estimate the flow rate for the above channel?
Hint:
Treat each different portion of the channel separately.005 ft/ft 5’ 5’ 5’ 3’ Grass n=.Manning’s Over Different Terrains
S = . P and Q for each section of the channel that has a different n coefficient.

03)1.24 cfs per section For both sections… Q = 2 x 80.Manning’s Over Grass
S = .24 = 160.005) Q = 80.03 3’
Concrete n=.03 Grass n=.882/3√(.005 ft/ft 5’ 5’ 5’ 3’ Grass n=.48 cfs
.49/.015
The Grassy portions:
A = 5’ x 3’ = 15 ft2
For each section: P = 5’ + 3’ = 8 ft R = 15 ft2/8 ft = 1.88 ft
Q = 15(1.

49/.72 ft
Q = 30(1.3 = 540 cfs
.722/3√(.005) Q = 410.015
A = 5’ x 6’ = 30 ft2
P = 5’ + 3’ + 3’= 11 ft
The Concrete section
R = 30 ft2/11 ft = 2.Manning’s Over Concrete
S = .005 ft/ft 5’ 5’ 5’ 3’ Grass n=.03 Grass n=.03 3’
Concrete n=.6 + 129.6 cfs For the entire channel… Q = 410.015)2.

the Bernoulli equation alone is not sufficient. and momentum loss through diameter changes and corners take head (energy) out of a system that theoretically conserves energy.Pipe Flow and the Energy Equation
For pipe flow. to correctly calculate the flow and pressures in pipe systems. Therefore. the Bernoulli Equation must be modified. Friction loss along the pipe.
P1/g + V12/2g + z1 =
P2/g + V22/2g + z2 + Hmaj + Hmin
Energy line with no losses
Hmaj
Energy line with major losses 1 2
.

Major Losses
Major losses occur over the entire pipe. associated with it. as the friction of the fluid over the pipe walls removes energy from the system. Each type of pipe as a friction factor. f. Hmaj = f (L/D)(V2/2g)
Energy line with no losses
Hmaj
Energy line with major losses 1 2
.

Minor Losses
. KL to go with it. or narrowing has a loss coefficient. sum all of the minor losses along the pipe. but only at points of momentum loss. to find the total minor loss throughout a pipe. Since Minor losses occur at unique points along a pipe. minor losses do not occur over the length of the pipe.Minor Losses
Unlike major losses. Each type of bend.

Major and Minor Losses
Major Losses:
Hmaj = f (L/D)(V2/2g)
f = friction factor L = pipe length D = pipe diameter V = Velocity g = gravity
Hmin = KL(V2/2g)
Kl = sum of loss coefficients V = Velocity g = gravity When solving problems. the loss terms are added to the system at the second analysis point
Minor Losses:
P1/g + V12/2g + z1 = P2/g + V22/2g + z2 + Hmaj + Hmin
.

Loss Coefficients
.

and the minor losses associated with the entrance. what is the elevation of the oil surface in the upper reservoir? Include major losses along the pipe.Pipe Flow Example
1 Z1 = ?
goil= 8.82 kN/m3
f = . and the outlet. the two bends.
.035 7m Z2 = 130 m Kout=1 130 m 2
60 m
r/D = 0 r/D = 2
If oil flows from the upper to lower reservoir at a velocity of 1.58 m/s in the D= 15 cm smooth pipe.

8m/s2)
Hmaj= 5.58m/s)2)/(.Pipe Flow Example
1 Z1 = ? Z2 = 130 m 7m r/D = 0 r/D = 2 130 m Kout=1 2
60 m
Apply Bernoulli’s equation between points 1 and 2: Assumptions: P1 = P2 = Atmospheric = 0 V1 = V2 = 0 (large tank) 0 + 0 + Z1 = 0 + 0 + 130m + Hmaj + Hmin
Hmaj = (f L V2)/(D 2g)=(.035 x 197m * (1.85m
.15 x 2 x 9.

582/2*9.8) Hmin = 0.85m + Hmin Hmin= 2KbendV2/2g + KentV2/2g + KoutV2/2g From Loss Coefficient table: Kbend = 0.Pipe Flow Example
1 Z1 = ? Z2 = 130 m 7m r/D = 0 r/D = 2 130 m Kout=1 2
60 m
0 + 0 + Z1 = 0 + 0 + 130m + 5.24 m Kout = 1
.5 + 1) * (1.19 Kent = 0.19x2 + 0.5 Hmin = (0.

24m Z1 = 136.Pipe Flow Example
1 Z1 = ? Z2 = 130 m 7m r/D = 0 r/D = 2 130 m Kout=1 2
60 m
0 + 0 + Z1 = 0 + 0 + 130m + Hmaj + Hmin
0 + 0 + Z1 = 0 + 0 + 130m + 5.1 meters
.85m + 0.

Stormwater Mgt Model
(SWWM)
• Most advanced model ever written for
dynamic hydraulic routing
• Solves complex equations for pipe flow with
consideration of tailwater at outlet
• New graphical user interface for easy input
and presentation of results
• Will allow for direct evaluation of flood control
options under various conditions
.

SWMM Input
Rainfall Pattern Pipe Elevations and Sizes Inlets to Pipes
Junction Locations
Bayou Level
.

SWMM Output
Flooding Areas
High Bayou Level Backflow at Outlet
.