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Hairy cell leukemia


Hairy cell leukemia is an uncommon
hematological malignancy characterized by an
accumulation of abnormal B lymphocytes. It is
usually classified as a sub-type of chronic
lymphoid leukemia. Hairy cell leukemia makes
up approximately 2% of all leukemias.

CAUSES
The cause of hairy cell leukemia is unknown.
Tobacco smoke, Ionizing radiation, Industrial
chemicals does not appear to increase the risk
of developing HC
Farming and gardening appear to increase the
risk

Symptoms
the "hairy cells" (malignant B lymphocytes) accumulate in the
bone marrow, interfering with the production of normal WBC,
RBC, PLT.
patients may develop infections related to low white blood cell
count,
anemia and fatigue due to a lack of red blood cells,
easy bleeding due to a low platelet count.
Leukemic cells may gather in the spleen and cause it to swell;.
Routine blood count shows unexpectedly low numbers of one
or more kinds of normal blood cells, or after unexplained
bruises or recurrent infections in an otherwise apparently
healthy patient.
Patients with a high tumor burden may also have somewhat
reduced levels of cholesterol, especially in patients with an
enlarged spleen. Cholesterol levels return to more normal
values with successful treatment of HCL.

DIAGNOSIS
Pancytopenia
8090% of patients have an enlarged spleen
It is also possible to definitively diagnose hairy
cell leukemia through flow cytometry on blood
or bone marrow.

TREATMENT

Chemotherapy
Immunotherapy
Others (splenectomy, bone marrow transplant, )
More than 95% of new patients are treated well
or at least adequately by cladribine or
pentostatin