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An Analysis of Public Investment Policies in Marikina City, Philippines (1992-2010)

Bryan Joseph Ortiz Far Eastern University Manila, Philippines

The Philippines as a patchwork state

While several states in the East Asian region are classified by scholars as developmental states due to their ability to promote economic and social transformation, the Philippines often regarded as a weak state (Hutchcroft, 1998; Wade, 1990; McCoy, 1994)

The Philippines as a patchwork state

Nonetheless, Abinales & Amoroso (2005) affirm that the Philippine state has islands of state strength. For instance, the state does not sufficiently provide the necessary public goods but there are cases of success.

The Philippines as a patchwork state

There are Philippine local government units (LGUs) that effectively demonstrated the capacity to deliver public goodsOne of those LGUs is Marikina City.

Some of Marikinas accomplishments

A road network of 700 km. A (relatively) litter and obstruction-free sidewalks/footpaths Garbage collection efficiency of 98-100% Housing for 17,974 families (relocation mostly within the city) A river free from encroachments (within the 96-meter easement from the rivers centerline) 5-minute response time for emergencies
Source: Marikina City Annual Report, various years

Question

How did the LGU of Marikina, as a local state, successfully pursued and implemented policies concerning the delivery of public goods?

Theory and Methodology

Dietrich Rueschemeyer and Peter Evans (1985, 1995) discussion on the states efficacy in promoting economic and societal transformation reinvigorates Max Weber (and other members of the German Historical School as well as early mercantilists idea) that the stability and dynamism of modern capitalism depend on the mediating or guiding role of the state.

Theory and Methodology

The theoretical framework is tested through a historical methodology, one of the basic foundations in the social sciences (Rueschemeyer & Mahoney, 2003)

Marikina

an agricultural town that became home to shoe manufacturing and other industries. Rapid urbanization occurred in the latter half of the 20th century (Isidro, 1991). Since then, problems like crime, slums/informal settlements, unsanitary conditions, environmental degradation, unemployment and the like had increased..

..until Bayani Fernando (1992-2001) and Marides Fernando (2001-2010) became Marikinas mayors.

Causal mechanisms of Marikinas effective delivery of public goods


1.

Competition between cities within the Metropolitan Manila area as well as other regional groupings prompted local state actors to implement bureaucratic reform.

Causal mechanisms of Marikinas effective delivery of public goods


2. Market logic is used by the local state to justify redistributive policies.

Causal mechanisms of Marikinas effective delivery of public goods


3. Local state actors coherent action through the apportionment of power within the bureaucratic machinery is necessary for successful delivery of public goods.

Causal mechanisms of Marikinas effective delivery of public goods


4. Through cooptation, local state actors have the ability to craft policies autonomously and coherently with relative insulation to pressures from social forces.

Assessment of Marikinas effective delivery of public goods

The state in Marikina had a leading role in solving collective action problems like the delivery of public goods. The bureaucratic reform enabled the local state to approximate Webers elements of an effective bureaucracy.

Assessment of Marikinas effective delivery of public goods

Results show that Marikina local states ties with social groups do not follow the oft-repeated assertions on the need for participatory governance.

Conclusion

Findings from this study not only affirm the existence of islands of state strength but also clearly confirm the possibility of installing a developmental state (model) at the local level.

Reference (Primary source)


Marikina City Annual Report (various years) Bayani Fernandos State of the City Address (various years) Marides Fernandos State of the City Address (various years)

Reference (Primary source)


Municipality of Marikina (n.d.) Program of

Government 1992-1997

Reference
Abinales, Patricio & D. Amoroso. (2005) State and Society in the Philippines. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, Inc. Evans, Peter (1995). Embedded Autonomy. New Jersey: Princeton University Press

Reference
Fernando, Marides & E. Maliwat (2009)

Strengthening Ministry Mariano, Len (1999) Squatter-Free Marikina. Quezon City: Local Government Academy

Urbanidad: Responsible Living, Rewarding Life. Marikina City: Church

Reference
Rueschemeyer, Dietrich & P. Evans (1985). The State and Economic Transformation. Bringing the State Back In. Eds. P. Evans, D. Rueschemeyer, & T. Skocpol. (pp. 45-77). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ____________________& J. Mahoney (2003)

Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Science Cambridge: Cambridge University


Press

Reference
Salvador, Alma (1997). Local budgeting: A Closed-Door Affair. The Case of the Municipality of Marikina. Demystifying Local Power. Ed. L. Tumbaga. (pp. 2942) Quezon City: Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs Tordecilla, Roberto (1997) Peoples Participation in Crafting Award-winning Local Government Programs: Local Planning in Marikina and Irosin. Demystifying Local Power. Ed. L. Tumbaga. (pp. 5-28) Quezon City: Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs

Reference
Wade, Robert (1990) Governing the Market. N.J.: Princeton University Press Weiss, Linda (1998) The Myth of the Powerless State. New York: Cornell University Press

Reference (Internet)
Iglesias, Gabrielle & C. Yu (2008) Flood Disaster Mitigation and River Rehabilitation by Marikina City, Philippines. Retrieved from http://sheltercentre.org/sites/default/fil es/ADPC_SaferCities22.pdf