Water Transmission and

Distribution Systems
Pipeline hydraulics
Water Transmission systems and appurtenances
Water distribution systems and appurtenances.
Pipeline/channel hydraulics
• Total energy per unit weight of the flowing water is called head
– includes three components: kinetic, potential and pressure heads
• Units of pressure are Pascals (N/m2)
• Pressure head (h) is defined as pressure upon specific weight (p/ρg)
– 1kPa = 01.02 m
Head loss (h
• Due to friction, water flow in a pipe/channel results in development of
shear stress between the flowing water and the wetted wall
– Friction depends on flow rate, roughness of the surface, length of the
channel/pipe and hydraulic radius of the channel/pipe
• Head loss due to friction (major losses) is calculated by
– Darcy-Weisbach formula
– Hazen-Williams formula
– Chezy formula - Mannings formula combined with Colebrook-White formula
• Turbulence due to appurtenances and fittings on the pipelines/channels
also causes head loss (minor losses)
HGL: Imaginary line corresponding to the sum of the potential head and the
pressure head drawn for a pipeline/channel
• For pipe flow it corresponds to the height to which water will rise
vertically in a tube attached to a pipeline
85 . 1
17 . 1

V is velocity (m/s)
L is length of pipe (m)
is frictional head loss
R is hydraulic radius
K is conversion factor (0.849 for SI units)
C is roughness coefficient
Hazen-Williams equation
f h
f is coefficient of friction
L is length of pipe (m)
d is diameter of pipe (m)
V is mean velocity (m/s)
Darcy-Weisbach equation
f = D'Arcy-Weisbach friction coefficient
= Reynolds Number
k = roughness of duct/pipe/tube surface (m)
= hydraulic diameter (m)


+ ÷ =
f R
51 . 2
72 . 3
log 2
Colebrook-White formula
ρ = density (kg/m
= hydraulic diameter (m)
u = velocity (m/s)
μ = dynamic viscosity (Ns/m
ν = kinematic viscosity (m
v µ
h h
d u d u
R = =
Reynolds Number
= hydraulic diameter (m)
A = area section of the duct (m
p = wetted perimeter of the duct (m)
Hydraulic diameter
85 . 1
87 . 4
7 . 10

For circular pipe flow
D is pipe diameter (m)
Q is flow rate (m3/sec.)
C where
Chezy formula
V =
Manning formula
‘V’ is velocity (m/sec.)
‘C’ is Chezy coefficient (m
‘R’ is hydraulic radius (m)
‘S’ is slope
‘n’ is Manning coefficient of roughness
‘f’ is Darcy-Weisbach friction factor
‘V’ is velocity (m/sec.)
‘C’ is Hazen-William’s coefficient
‘R’ is Hydaulic radius (m)
‘S’ is slope
‘Q’ is flow (m
‘d’ is pipe diameter (m)
54 . 0 63 . 2
54 . 0 63 . 0
2785 . 0
849 . 0
S d C Q
Hazen-Williams formula
‘C’ is carrying capacity factor and
also referred to as roughness
‘C’ value icreases with increasing
internal smoothness, and
increasing pipe diameter, but
decreases wih pipe age
‘C’ value to a negligible extent is
affected by changes in flow rates
Plastic pipes have higher ‘C’ value
(140) then iron pipes (130)
Friction Factor
Depends on
• Relative roughness (roughness projections to pipe diameter ratio)
– Pipes carrying raw water are susceptible silt deposition, organic
growth, encrustation, and corrosion (all increase the roughness)
– Roughness projections increase with age – durable smooth internal
lining can avoid this
– Metallic pipes lined with cement mortar or epoxy internal coating
have low roughness projection
– Asbestos cement, concrete, cement mortar, PVC, GRP, and other
plastic pipes do not show any significant increase with age
• Reynold’s number
– For Re >10
, friction factor is almost independent of both velocity and
pipe diameter
– For Re 4000 to 10
, friction factor depends on diameter, velocity and
relative roughness
If discharge is known, Moody diagram can be used for friction factor,
otherwise nomograph by SP Johnson and Huner Rouse can be used
– In place of Re the following used
h d g d
f R
Equivalent pipe Length (minor loss
converted to pipe length equivalent)
K h
K= minor loss coefficient
v = flow velocity (m/s)
= head loss (m)
g = acceleration of gravity (m/s
D g
2 2
2 2
‘f’= friction factor
‘L’ = equivalent pipe length (m)
‘D’ = pipe internal diameter (m)
Best or most economic hydraulic cross
section for open channel flow
• Best or most economic hydraulic cross section for open channels
occur at the minimal wetted perimeter (or at the maximum
hydraulic radius) for a specific flow cross section
• For rectangular channels
width depth has
channel gular rec f or tion cross f low economic most and Best
gives zero to derivative the equating
y b
y to respect with derivative taking
y b p perimeter wetted
b y A tion cross f low
tan sec
. sec
2 2
+ ÷ = + ÷ =
+ =
+ =
Best or most economic hydraulic cross
section for open channel flow
u . . 2 R P =

÷ =
2 1 cos 2
R y =
Ө is angle in radians
Scour velocity or Self cleansing velocity
• Self-cleansing velocity or scour velocity can be found by
Camp’s formula

• SG is specific gravity of the particle
• d
is particle size
• K
is constant and its value is taken as 0.8
• Recommended self-cleansing velocity is 0.6 m/sec.
• Ensures transport of sand particles of 0.09 mm size and 2.65
specific gravity without allowing settling
• For preventing deposition of sand and gravel 0.75 m/sec.
velocity is recommended
• Velocity not exceeding 3 m/sec. is recommended for avoiding
damage channel damage from erosion
( ) | |
p S
d SG K R
V ÷ =
Design a trapezoidal channel for carrying water at the
rate of 1000 m3/hr (average day demand) for 6 km
Flow velocity for the ADD flow is 1.0 m/sec. angle of
the trapezoidal channel is 60°.
Find the flow velocity in the channel when flow is 0.3
of ADD and 1.3 of ADD for the channel designed?
Transmission System
• Function of the system is to transfer water from source to
distribution network, storage reservoir or WTP
• Canals, aqueducts or tunnels, free flow/ gravity flow pipelines
and pressure pipelines are used for water transmission
• Transmission is either by gravity or by pumping
– Gravity flow system – low cost and involves no energy cost
– Canals, aqueducts or tunnels, free flow/ gravity flow pipelines
– Pumped pipe flow system – high costs of operation and
• pumped to distribution system with provision for sending excess
water to storage reservoirs
• pumped to storage reservoir
• pumped to distribution system - variable speed or variable
frequency drive pumps are ideal

Transmission System
• Pressure mains/ pipelines
– Less governed by route topography and routing of pipelines can
be along roads and public ways - Closely follow ground surface
– HGL for the maximum possible flow is always maintained above
the pipeline throughout the length (no –ve pressure allowed)
– Maximum HGL is computed based on the water supply of 0.3
times the average day water demand
– Maximum HGL should not be > set value (70 m) – HGL will be
maximum during shut-off conditions specially in gravity systems -
shutoff at the source can help in tackling the high HGL problem
– Break pressure tanks/chambers (with open water surface) are
installed along the main pipeline to limit the maximum pressure
– Should have the capacity to supply at least the maximum day
demand during the design year
– For systems with storage reservoirs of 20-25% of average day
demand (ADD) storage capacity, the capacity is 1.3 times ADD
– Pipe material selected should withstand the highest possible
pressure in the pipeline
– Hazen-Williams formula or Dorcy-Weisbach formula is used
Transmission System
• Channels/canals
– Trapezoidal sections are considered as most economical -
Rectangular sections prove economical when cut through rock
– Flow is uniform (because of the same cross section, slope and
nature of surface)
– Recommended for raw water and not for treated water
– Gravity flow systems - Manning formula is used
– Mean velocities: 0.3 to 0.6 m/sec. for unlined channels and 1.0
to 2.0 m/sec. for lined channels
• Gravity tunnels, aqueducts and pipelines
– Laid below the hydraulic grade line/gradient and designed for
full flow
– horseshoe shaped gravity tunnels are used (for structural
– Can shorten the route, conserve head and reduce the cost
– Manning formula is used

Appurtenances: Valves
Devices used to control of movement of water and/or air
through pipelines by opening or closing to different extents
Commonly used types of valves
– Block/isolation valves (allow full flow or no flow): gate valves,
ball valves and plug valves
– Control valves: globe valves, butterfly valves, diaphragm valves,
and float valves
– Directional (or check or non-return) valves: swing check valves,
lift check valves, piston check valves, ball check valves, stop
check valves
– Pressure reducing valves
– Altitude valves - float valves!
– Air valves - release valves and vacuum breaking valves
– Scour valves
Often smaller diameter bypass valves are installed around larger
diameter inline valves for equalizing pressure across the valve
and facilitate its opening

Appurtenances: isolation/block valves
Gate valves
• Closing element is parallel sided or wedge-shaped disc/gate
attached to the end of a stem and fitting into a wedge-shaped seat
• A linear-motion valve (element moves down and up in straight line)
• Have either rising or non-rising stems (in rising type, stem is fixed to
gate; and in non-rising type, stem is threaded at the bottom and
mates with thread in the gate)
• Not used to control flow - partial opening damages the valve (can
be eroded and proper sealing against seat becomes impossible)
Ball valve
• A rotational-motion valve – flow is controlled through rotating a
ball-shaped closing element
• ball has a hole of the same diameter as the pipeline in it - valve is
open when the hole lines up with inlet and outlet of the valve body
Plug valve
• A rotational-motion valve - operates similar to the ball valve
• Shape of the closing element is a plug with a hole

Appurtenances: Flow control valves
Globe valves
• A linear-motion valve – looks very similar to a gate valve from outside
• Has a rising stem and an actuator is fixed to it and rises with it
• Good for flow regulation as well as for starting and stopping flow.
• Globe valves can be
– Z-type- the fluid pressure helps to push the valve open
– Angle type – unlike the Z-type, the flow changes its direction only once
- pressure drop is lesser here
– Y-type - it has the seat at about 45° to the flow direction – it
straightens the flow path and reduces the pressure drop.

Butterfly valves
A rotational-motion valve – just 90° turn to open or close
Simple and takes very little space - used in large pipelines
Can be used to start, stop and regulate flow (still not that
good to block flow)
Closing element is a circular disc of dia. closer to pipe’s ID
Operation takes lot of force (should be pushed against
the fluid pressure
Diaphragm valves
Has a sheet of flexible material (diaphragm) totally
separating the valve trim from the flowing fluid
Diaphragm valves are rising-stem, linear-motion valves
(a) Valve Closed
(b) Valve Open
Appurtenances: Directional/check valves
Swing check valve: The valve disc is hinged at the top in a horizontal pipeline
and when there is no flow, weight of the disc closes the valve
Piston check valve: Piston check valves are similar to lift check valves , but,
instead of a valve disc there is a piston that smoothly slide in a cylinder
Ball check valve: These have spherical (ball-shaped) closing elements, that
may operate by gravity or by the flow pressure or it may be spring-loaded
Lift check valve
• These have a valve body and seating arrangement similar to globe valves.
• Flow must enter from under the seat to lift the closing element, which
may be free to fall under its own weight, or a spring may help in closing
• Reverse direction flow pushes closing element against the seat
Stop check valve
• Similar to a globe valve but the valve disk is free to slide on the stem
• With the valve stem raised, it acts as a lift check valve, and if there is no
flow or flow reversel, the disc drops into the seat.
• When the stem is lowered, the disc can not be lifted by flow and hence
the flow stops from both the directions.
Directional/check valves
Swing check valve
Lift check valve
Piston check valve
Ball check valve
Stop check valve
Double check valve
Appurtenances: Pressure
reducing valves
• These throttle automatically to prevent the
downstream hydraulic grade from
exceeding a set value
• During operation, the valve continuously
opens and closes to maintain a flow of
fluid at the reduced pressure
• The operation depends on balance
between fluid pressures acting above and
below a piston, and a spring force
• The piston is pushed down by the forces of
the low pressure fluid plus the spring, on
the other hand the piston is pushed up by
the force of the high pressure fluid
Appurtenances: Altitude Valves
– These are employed at the point where pipeline enters a tank
– When tank level rises to a specified upper limit, the valve closes
to prevent any further flow eliminating overflow
– When the flow trend reverses, the valve reopens and allows the
tank to drain or to supply the usage demands of the system.

Appurtenances: Air Release Valves (ARVs)
Used to release air trapped in pipelines (and to allow air into
empty pipelines under vacuum/negative gage pressure)
– Usually provided on both sides of an isolation valve, at the
system high points (summits), and at the points of pipeline
grade change (where negative pressures are possible)
Free air (air pockets) can be found in the pipelines (at high
points) and fittings
– Pressure change can cause release of dissolved air
– Air can enter pipelines by vortex action of pumps, at the intake
– Any openings, connections, and fittings can allow air to enter
What if air pockets are left in pipelines?
– Affect pipeline efficiency and intensify water hammering –
cause pressure surges and increase cavitation hazards
– Air in the water lines speeds up the corrosion process
– Air trapped at bends, tees and other fittings can reduce and
even stop flow
– Air can result in improper reading of customers’ meters
Appurtenances: Air Release Valves (ARVs)
Types of Air Release Valves: 3 types - Kinetic ARVs, Automatic
ARVs and Combination ARVs
1. Kinetic Air Release Valves with Large Orifice:
– Used for rapid release of air during pipeline filling and for rapid
air entry during pipeline emptying
– Function when the pipeline is not under pressure
2. Automatic Air Release Valves with Small Orifice
– Used for air release during water flow under pressure
– Air accumulation drops ball in the valve and opens the valve for
air release – rising water in the valve floats ball and closes valve
3. Combination Air Release Valve
– incorporates both automatic and kinetic ARVs into one unit
– Universal type ARVs, designed for air discharge during filling and
air entry during emptying of the water main, also allow escape
of air from the water main in operation and under pressure
– A compound lever system functioning in conjunction with a large
orifice and a small orifice in one integral body casting allows this
Appurtenances: Air Release Valves (ARVs)
Valve Locations
• on rising mains after the pumps for both releasing and admitting air
• at high points throughout pipeline systems
• at pipeline slope transition points (before & after steep slopes)
• At every 500m distance on the long pipeline of uniform slope
Valve size: Air valve to conduit size is 1:12 for air release type
and 1:8 for air release as well as air admission
Valve operation
• As liquid rises in the valve, air escapes through valve’s large orifice
• Rising liquid raises the valve’s float and lever system - rising of the
float to its limit, results in resting of both the main valve and the
pressure plunger against their seats and prevention of liquid escape
• Rising of accumulating air into the valve, while the line is in
operation and under pressure, displaces the liquid from the top of
the valve body and drops the float down – this leads to opening of
the pressure plunger and escape of the accumulated air
• Escaping air rises liquid level and closes the pressure plunger
Appurtenances: Fittings
Fittings are installed
• For connecting pipes of same type and size and pipes of
different sizes
– Unions: provided in pipelines for ease of repair usually at
regular intervals (60 m)
– Coupling: used in jointing 2 pipes of same diameter – cheaper
than unions.
– Reducers: used when there is reduction of pipe size (bushings)
• For changing the flow direction for stopping flow
• Elbows (to change flow direction), reducing elbows, tees (to
divide flow into two), crosses (to divide flow into three), caps,
plugs and blind flanges
Joints: used to attach pipes together or attach pipes to other
devices - two types: slip on joints and mechanical joints
– Mechanical joints are used to connect pipes to fire hydrants or
valves, in bridge crossings, and in distribution piping
Gauges, meters, etc.
Transmission system
• Transmission of water accounts for appreciable part of the capital
outlay and maintenance costs could also be high
• During transmission the following should be ensured against
– Possible pollution of water from surrounding areas
– Water losses due to percolation and evapo-transpiration
– Misuse of water
• Materials used
– Cast iron, ductile iron and mild steel
– Pre-stressed concrete, reinforced cement concrete, asbestos cement
– Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Glass reinforced plastic (GRP), plastic
• Following influence the materials chosen
– Resistance to flow
– Available head or pressure
– Allowable velocities
– Scouring
– Sediment transport
– Water quality
– Relative cost
Factors in Selecting Pipeline Materials
• Flow Characteristics: friction head loss and flow capacity - Friction
loss is power loss and affect the operating costs of the system if
pump is used.
• Pipe Strength: working pressure and bursting pressure rating
ahould adequate to meet the operating conditions of the system
• Durability: with good life expectancy given the operating conditions
and the soil conditions of the system (should have an expected life
of 30 years or more)
• Type of Soil: Select the type of pipe that is suited to the type of soil
-acidic soil can easily corrode G.I. pipes - very rocky soil can damage
plastic pipes unless properly bedded in sand or other type of
• Availability: Select locally manufactured/fabricated pipes whenever
• Cost of Pipes: In addition to initial cost of pipes, installation cost
should also be considered - type of joint (screwed, solvent weld, slip
joint, etc.), weight of pipe, depth of bury required, width of trench
and depth of cover required can affect the installation cost
Evaluation of pipe material against the factors of selection
Water distribution system
• Designed to supply adequate quantity of water (including fire
fighting requirements) at all times and at sufficient pressure
– Pressure not be excessive (proves costly and increases leaks and
consumption), but should it be sufficient for fire fighting?
• Categories: Branching, Grid, and combination (both) systems
– Grid systems preferred (furnish water to each point of consumption
from at least two directions)
– Pipe network loops with nodes (ends pipe sections) and links/pipes
– Branching systems have dead ends and do not permit water supply
from more than one direction
• A service area can have more than one distribution systems
• Main elements water distribution systems are
– Piping with valves and other appurtenances
– Pumping stations and Storage facilities
– Fire hydrants
– Water meters
– House service connections and Public faucets
w Water distribution system
Distribution Pipe Network Design Criteria
• Distribution pipelines are designed to handle peak hour demand or
maximum day demand plus fire demand (whichever is larger)
• Velocity at design flows is 0.9 to 1.5 m/sec. (for transmission lines
this velocity is 3.0 m/sec.)
• Allowable minimum pressure at the remotest point of the
distribution system is 3 m and allowable maximum pressure is 70 m
• Minimum Hourly Demand is 0.3 times of ADD
• Maximum Day or Daily Demand is 1.3 times of ADD
• Peak Hour Demand (PHD) is 3 times the ADD for < 1,000 population
and 2.5 times the ADD for > 1,000 served population
• Allowable head loss is in the range of a minimum of 0.50 m/1,000
m and a maximum of 10 m/1,000 m
• Reservoir Capacity: 25% of ADD
• Minimum pipe diameter for fire fighting is 6 inch
50 MLD 9.5 MLD
2.5 MLD 2.0 MLD
4.0 MLD 3.0 MLD
6.5 MLD
7.0 MLD 5.5 MLD 10.0 MLD
500 m 550 m
450 m 650 m
550 m 500 m
550 m 700 m 600 m
650 m 500 m 700 m
Water supply pipe network analysis (Hardy-Cross method)
Flow rate in the pipes
Pipe diameter
Equivalent pipe length for minor losses
Pressure at the nodes

( ) ( )
( )
( )
¿ ¿ ¿
÷ = = +
+ =
+ + = + =
÷ =
= =
= =
a a a a
a a L
a a L a L
loop a of pipes all f or sign same given is here
loop a of pipes the all f or same is
KQ KQ or Q Q K
zero be must loop closed a around h of sum
Q Q K h negligible is value here
Q Q K h Q K h
is correction f low then Q is f low assumed If
f L
V Where
V f L
h f rom KQ h
2 0 2
. 2 &
' 8
2 2
2 2
2 2
5 2 2
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o o
t t
Hardy-cross method
Hardy-cross method
• Divide network into closed loops of nodes and pipes.
• Junction modes (points where pipes meet and flow is either
introduced or withdrawn) and fixed grade nodes (reservoir is
attached with the node)
• For each of the loops identify the pipes
• For each of the pipes
– Obtain length (L) for each pipe (actual length + equivalent pipe length
for accounting the minor losses)
– Decide diameter of each of the pipes
– Find ‘K’ value using the following formula:

Assume discharge (Q
) and direction of flow in each of the pipes
– Apply Continuity at each node (Total inflow = Total Outflow)
– Consider clockwise flow as positive and anti-clockwise flow as negative
5 2
‘f’ is friction factor
‘L’ is pipe length
‘D’ is pipe diameter
Calculate h
for each of the pipes (give positive sign for clockwise
flow direction and negative sign for anticlockwise flow)

Compute sum for loop E h
Calculate h
/ Q
for each pipe and compute Eh
/ Q

Calculate correction (δ) by the following equation

For common members between 2 loops both corrections (δ
) have to be made
As loop 1 member, o = o
÷ o
As loop 2 member, o = o
÷ o

Hardy-cross method
a L
KQ h =
Apply correction to Q
and take Q
+ o
Repeat computation of correction o and application of correction untill the
correction becomes very small and E h
Solve for pressure at each node using energy conservation

Hardy-cross method
Desired quantity of water should
be reliably supplied at the desired
pressure to all the points of use
Hardy-Cross method
1. Skeletonization of the water distribution system
– Construct water distribution network of nodes and links
(multiple loops)
– Find out and record lengths of the links/pipes
– Workout water extractions and additions for all the nodes
– Water distribution storage reservoirs and pumps are also part
of the network
• Surface reservoirs
• Standpipes (tall cylindrical tanks with two storage volumes, an
upper useful storage and a lower supporting storage
• Elevated tanks
2. Label all the nodes and the pipes, arrange in loops,
assume flow direction in each of the pipes, and assume
flows in the pipelines through water balancing at each of
the nodes
– Assign positive or negative signs to indicate flow direction
(clock-wise direction a positive sign and anti-clock-wise
direction a negative sign)

Hardy-Cross method
3. Find diameters for each of the pipes
4. Compute ‘K’ value
5. Head loss value and headloss/flow rate values for all the
6. Compute flow correction for each of the loops

7. If the flow correction is significant, add the flow correction
for each of the pipes in loop
– In case of shared pipes among the loops apply the correction
as below:

– Addition of flow correction can result in change in the sign of
the flow (or flow direction)
5 2
a L
KQ h =
loop shared the for correction flow loop the for correction flow Q Q
÷ + =
Hardy-Cross method
8. Repeat the steps 4 to 6 till the flow corrections for all the
loops become insignificant
9. Once flow corrections become insignificant, find flow
velocities in each of the pipes and check whether they
within the acceptable range or not
– If not, adjust diameters of all those pipes for increasing or
decreasing the flow velocities
10. If any of the pipe diameters are changed, repeat the steps 3-
9 till the flow velocities in all the pipes are within the range
– Acceptable flow velocity range: 0.9 to 1.5 m/sec. (designed for
max. hourly flow or MDD + fire demand – whichever is larger)
11. Once flow velocities in all the pipes are within the range,
find pressure at each of the nodes
12. Identify the node with the minimum pressure and adjust
pressures at all the nodes to satisfy the minimum pressure
requirements (3.0 m WC is considered as the minimum)
Distribution/Service/Storage Reservoirs
Purposes served
• Provide storage and facilitate meeting the widely fluctuating water
demands imposed on the water distribution system
• Water is pumped into the reservoir during low demand hours,
and drawn out during the peak demand hours
• Tanks are designed to "float" off of the water system (means
flow into the tanks is set at about average demand)
• In case of the reservoir on the opposite end of the network,
excess water flows to the reservoir
• Provides storage for fire fighting and also for emergency water
demands (power/pump failure, repair, maintenance!)
• Provides head required and equalizes operating pressures
(maintains constant pressure?)
• When pressure in the mains drop from the increased water
demand, water of the service reservoir is automatically feed
into the mains
• In case of water supply from a high elevation impounded reservoir,
the service reservoir can be used to reduce the water pressure
Distribution/Service/Storage Reservoirs
Reservoir types
• Underground reservoirs
• Surface or ground level reservoirs
– Have economic advantages over elevated tanks
– Unless located at higher elevation, do not produce the desired
water pressure (pumping may be required)
• Standpipes:
– Tall cylindrical tanks with two storage volumes, an upper useful
storage and a lower supporting storage (often require pumping)
• Elevated tanks:
– Raised above the ground on one or more supporting legs
– rectangular, square or circular tanks with flat, spherical, dome
shaped or intze shaped bottom
Elevated reservoirs and Standpipes
Continuous pumps operation is not required - short term pump
shutdowns do not affect water pressure in distribution system
Operating range of water levels in the elevated reservoir
• Elevation of the maximum water level in the reservoir is
– Minimum allowable pressure in the water distribution network
– Head loss between the minimum allowable pressure location and the
reservoir location for the maximum hourly flow condition of a
maximum daily demand
• Elevation to the minimum water level in the reservoir is
– Minimum allowable pressure in the water distribution network
– Head loss between the minimum allowable pressure location and the
reservoir location for the average daily demand flow condition
• Large vertical pipes (essentially very tall ground storage tanks)
completely filled with water
• Relatively less desirable - unless located at higher elevation, only
top water (<50%) can be used
• Significant quantity of water of the standpipe is used, only as a
support, unless booster pumps are available for emergency use

Distribution/Service/Storage Reservoirs
Location of service reservoirs
• Location and type of distribution storage facilities depend on local
• Industrial and high value areas require more elevated storage than
the low value areas
• Strategically located for maximum benefits
• Should ensure that the required pressure is provided at every point in
the distribution systems
• Located on the highest elevation available or near the center of the
distribution system
• Often located to one side of the service area, or between the source
and the distribution network (piping between the tank and the source
is used both as a transmission line and also as part of the distribution
• More than one distribution reservoir can be there for a distribution
– Number and size of storage tanks may vary with the size and demand
of the system
– Good to have several tanks in a system

Reservoir Storage Capacity
Design involves consideration of structural stability, location,
capacity and operating range of water elevations, etc.
Storage capacity is sum of
1. Balancing storage for equalizing the fluctuating demand
against constant supply
– Equalizing storage mass curve of hourly rate of water
consumption is constructed for a MDD day
– 25% of the MDD is usually taken as the balancing storage
2. Breakdown or emergency storage (failure of pumps, drives
or electrical outage)
– Usually expressed as percentage of Average Day Demand (25%)
– Obtained by multiplying MDD by a factor ‘K’ (K value varies
between 0.5 and 3.0 from country to country
3. Fire storage
– 1 to 4 liters per capita may be sufficient
– Supply of 2-12 hours of fire flows is considered sufficient (larger
communities require longer duration of fire water supply)

Mains leading to and from the reservoir should be
large enough to handle max. emptying/filling rates
Control mechanisms should be there to keep the
tank as full as possible at all times
Level recording device at the reservoir can transmit
information to pumping station for pump regulation
Maintenance of Storage Reservoirs
• Proper maintenance of storage facilities is essential.
• All tanks should have tops or covers, and screens on air-vents
and overflows
• All tanks should have an exterior float gauge on the outside
• For good quality water, tanks must have complete turn-over
• Most tank floors slope toward a drain
– This drain should be valved
– It is best to lower the tank as low as possible prior to drain out
• All tanks should be drained, cleaned, inspected and
disinfected periodically
– Removal of any silt accumulated at the bottom of the tank
– Periodic inspection of the interiors of tanks
– Material and coatings used in the mains, tanks or reservoirs
should be corrosion resistant
• The materials and coatings causing taste and odor, color, turbidity
or toxicity must not be used
• Five types of pumps are used in the water supply system
• Low lift pumps: used to pump water from source to WTP
• High service pumps: used to pump water from the WTP and
discharge into the distribution system under pressure
• Booster pumps: used to increase pressure
• Recirculation pumps: used in the WTP
• Well pumps: used to lift water from wells/tube wells
• Static head of a pump system may vary with the fluctuating
water levels in the suction tank and in the discharge tank
• Normal or rated discharge: discharge when the pump is
operating at its maximum efficiency
• A pump is usually operated at 50-85% efficiency
• Shut-off head: head at which the pump discharge is zero
Fire Hydrants
• Fire services use water as fire extinguishing agent in the fire fighting
operations and Fire Hydrants provide the fire water
• Fire water system includes three components: water storage (in
service reservoirs), water distribution system and Fire Hydrants
• Fire water is supplied together with the municipal water – the
distribution/service/storage also holds the fire water and supplies
when needed
• Most reliable means of providing water for fire fighting is by
designing redundancy into the supply system
• Adequate fire water flow rates for reasonable duration even when
the reservoir refilling is disrupted is required
– 3785 LPM for 2 hours in the areas of no unusual hazards!
– 19000 LPM for 3 hours for commercial, industrial or urban-wild
land interface areas!
• Fire water should be made available from the gravity storage
facilities (pump failures and electrical outages are possible)

Fire Hydrants
• Acceptable pressures of fire water system are 65-85 PSI and
tolerable range of pressure is 50-120 PSI
• Fire water supply to fire hydrants should be from more than one
directions and the supply lines should be ≥150 mm or 6” size
• Install fire hydrants at every 500 feet distance
• Number of hydrants should be sufficient to provide the required fire
flow (larger and high hazard structures require larger flows)
• Should not be placed very close to the structures to be served (can
become a problem specially when the structure is involved in heavy
fire) – should be ≥12.2 m away from the structures
• Should be visible and accessible (vehicle access) and should have
necessary clearance
– Hoses and fire engines should not block critical access ways
– No equipment or facilities should be within 3 feet from hydrant
– No obstructions in front of the hydrant outlet and/or between the
hydrant outlet and the roadway

Fire Hydrants
• Hydrants must be simple and reliable to connect and to operate
• Pressure rating should be 150 PSI (should be static pressure tested
at twice the rated pressure)
• Center of the hose outlet should be less than 18 inch (457 mm)
above the final grade
• loose, crushed rock or gravel should be placed around the hydrant
shoe for drainage purposes
• Fire hydrant should be immediately recognizable to fire service
personnel and to the general public
• Fire hydrants can also be used to flush water out of stagnant
portions of the distribution system
Fire hydrant parts
Fire Hydrant Parts
• Short Branch Pipe 63mm & 38mm Diameter
• Coupling 63mm & 38mm Diameter
• Pressure Switch:
• Pressure Gauge:
House Reel Drum & Shut off Nozzel:
House Box Double Door:
Fire Hydrant Fittings
• Landing Valves 63mm and 38 mm Diameter
• Fixed Stand Post Water / Foam Monitor:
• Two Way Fire Brigade Connection
• Hose Pipe 63mm & 38mm Diameter
Fire Hydrants
Fire hydrants are painted in standard colours for protection and
for aesthetic reasons
• Municipal and non-municipal hydrants are painted in different
– chrome yellow for municipal hydrants and red for private hydrants
• Violet or light purple colour is international clour code for non-
potable water
• Bonnets and caps of hydrants should be colour coded to indicate
fire flow available from it at 20PSI pressure
– Class AA hydrants (>1,500 gpm) in light blue colour
– Class A hydrants (1,000 - 1,499 gpm) in green colour
– Class B hydrants (500 - 999 gpm) in orange colour
– Class C hydrants (< 500 gpm) in red colour
Fire Hydrant Details
Public Faucets

Service Connections

Water Meters
Essential to determine quantity of water produced by WTP and
quantity of water consumed by customers (needed for billing)
• Meters help in determining leaks and breaks in the
distribution system
• Meters make customer conscious and conserve water
Water meters are of two categories: main line meters and
customer meters
• Mainline meters (4 types)
• Venturi, Orifice, Velocity, and Pitot tube.
• Customer meters (3 types)
• positive displacement, compound, and fire line

Water Meters
Positive displacement meters
• Capable of measuring small flows with high accuracy
• Counts the number of times a chamber is filled and emptied
• These meters fail if there are sediments or loose scales in water
• These fail if there is relatively small % increase above rated flow
Current meters: Measure flow velocity through a known area
Compound meters:
• Combination of displacement meters and current meters
• At low flow rates, these work like displacement meters, and when
flow reaches predetermined value, these operate like current meters
• These are very accurate and not broken by large flows
The fire line meter: A special kind of compound meter.

Flow measurement
Rectangle Weirs:
• Contracted: Flow, Q = 3.33 (L - 0.2H) H

• Suppressed: Flow, Q = 3.33 L(H
Q = Flow, cubic feet per second
L = Length of crest, feet
H = Upstream head, feet
Cipoletti Weirs: Flow, Q = 3.367 L(H
Q = Flow, cubic feet per second
L = Length of crest, feet
H = Upstream head, feet
V-Notch Weirs:
• 90' V-notch: Flow, Q = 2.50 H

• 60' V-notch: Flow, Q = 1.443 H

• 45' V-notch: Flow, Q = 1.035 H

• 30' V-notch: Flow, Q = 0.685 H

Q = Flow, cubic feet/second
H = Upstream head, feet

Water hammer
d k
= =
. max
Max. water hammer pressure (m)– occurs
when closure time is ≤ critical closure time
Increasing actual closure time decreases water
hammer pressure
C is velocity of the pressure wave/shock wave
High for rigid pipes- rigid pipes: 1370; steel
pipes: 850 and plastic pipes 200 m/sc.)
is flow velocity prior to hammering (m/sec.)
‘k’ is bulk modulus of the water 2.07x10
‘d’ is pipe diameter (m)
is pipe wall thickness (m)
E is modulus of elasticity of pipe material
Modulus of elasticity
of pipe material
Protecting Water Quality in Distribution System
• Many water supply systems, due to economic reasons, do not
have 24-hour daily water service
• Creates risk of infiltration of polluted water into the water lines
• to counter this risk, residual chlorine (0.3 mg/L) is maintained in
water distribution system.
• Water mains are adequate separated from potential sources
of contamination (sewers, storm sewers, septic tanks, etc.)
• Cross-connections are avoided and backflow or back
siphoning (from a private plumbing system) is prevented
• Cross connections: connections that join or link a potable water
source with a source of questionable/unsafe water
• Avoid the situations giving rise to negative pressures in the
distribution system.
• Install NRVs and promptly repair leaks
• Minimize dead-ends to avoid water stagnation water (prevent
sediment deposition and bacterial growth minimization)
• Cover reservoirs and make all vents and openings secured and