Work Flow Analysis

The process of examining how work creates or adds value to the ongoing processes in a business.

Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
A fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost, quality, service, and speed.

Processing a Loan Application at IBM Credit Corporation Before and After Business Process Engineering through Job Analysis Work Flow Using Specialists
Customer Credit Service Checker Receptionist
Log in call from sales rep Do credit check on customer

Business Practices Specialist
Modify std. loan covenant based on cust. req.

Pricer

Administrator

To Customer

Compute Convert interest information rate on loan into a quote letter

ork Flow After Business Process Reengineering Deal To Structurer Customer
Use sophisticated computer program to process entire loan

Motivation
That which energizes, directs, and sustains human behavior. In HRM, a person’s desire to do the best possible job or to exert the maximum effort to perform assigned tasks.

The Job Characteristics
Core Job Characteristics Skill Varieties Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Critical Psychological States Experienced Meaningfullness of the Work Experienced Respon sibility for Work Outcomes Knowledge of Results from Work Activities
Strength of Relationships is Determined by Intensity of Employee Growth Need

Personal and Work Outcomes High Internal Work Motivation

High-Quality Work Performance High Satisfaction With the Work Low Turnover and Absenteeism

Feedback

Guidelines for Conducting a Job Analysis
 Determine the desired applications of the job analysis.  Select the jobs to be analyzed.  Gather the job information.  Verify the accuracy of the job information.  Document the job analysis by writing a job description.

Job Description
A written document that identifies, describes, and defines a job in terms of its duties, responsibilities, working conditions, and specifications.

The Techniques of Job Analysis
Employee DataGroup Collectio Analysis Techniqu Focused On n Results e Method 1. Task Any —large Question- Rating of Inventory number of naire tasks Analysis workers needed Description

2. Critical Any Incident Technique

he term job incumbent refers to the person currently filling a particular job.

Tasks are rated by job incumbent,* supervisor, or job analyst. Ratings may be characteristics such as importance of Interview Behavioral task and time spent Behavioral incidents doing it. representing poor descripthrough excellent tion performance are generated for each dimension of the job.

The Techniques of Job Analysis (cont.)
Techniqu e 3. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Employee DataCollectio Group Focused On n Method Any Questionnaire Analysis Results Description

Rating of Elements are rated on six 194 job scales (for example, extent elements use, importance to of job). Ratings are analyzed by computer.

4. Functional Any Job Analysis (FAQ)

Group interview/ Questionnaire

Rating of Task how job statements are generated and incumbent then presented to job incumbents to rate on such relates to people, dimensions as frequency and importance. data, and things

Employee DataCollectio Group Techniqu Focused On n e Method 5. Methods Any QuestionAnalysis naire (Motion Study)

The Techniques of Job Analysis (cont.)
Analysis Results Description

Rating of Elements are rated on six 194 job scales (for example, extent elements use, importance to of job). Ratings are analyzed by computer.

Task Inventory Analysis
 This technique is used to determine the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to perform a job successfully.  The analysis involves three steps:
x Interview x Survey x Generation

of a task by KSA matrix

Critical Incident Technique
 The critical incident technique (CIT) is used to develop behavioral descriptions of a job. In CIT, supervisors and workers generate behavioral incidents of job performance.  The technique involves the following four steps:
x x x x

Generate dimensions Generate incidents Retranslate Assign effectiveness values

What is Job Design?
• By using a variety of tools and techniques we try to find the best way to keep employees satisfied while maintaining as high as possible productivity, monetary or otherwise.

The Tools
• • • • • Job enlargement Job rotation Job enrichment Skill variety Autonomy: level of freedom

Nuts and Bolts
 Job enlargement involves adding more tasks(variety), ideally the worker could do all the tasks involved. This keeps thing interesting.  Job rotation is exactly that. It requires skill variety.

Nuts and Bolts cont’
 Job enrichment gives the employee more responsibility, thus creating a greater level of freedom or autonomy.  Compensation doesn’t play as large of a part in job satisfaction as we might think, but it does play a part. We want to be paid fairly, whether it is profit sharing, salary, commission, or piece rate.

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