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General Protection Philosophy

By:A.K.SAHU, Sr.Engineer(T&C)

General Protection Philosophy


FOLLOWING DEFINITIONS ARE GENERALLY USED IN POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION:

1. PROTECTION SYSTEM: A COMPLETE ARRANGEMENT OF PROTECTION EQUIPMENT AND OTHER DEVICES REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE A SPECIFIED FUNCTION BASED ON A PROTECTION PRINCIPLE. 2. PROTECTION EQUIPMENT: A COLLECTION OF PROTECTION DEVICES (RELAYS, FUSE ETC.) EXCLUDED ARE THE DEVICES SUCH AS CTs, PTs, CBs etc.

3. PROTECTION SCHEMES: A COLLECTION OF PROTECTION EQUIPMENT PROVIDING A DEFINED FUNCTION AND INCLUDING ALL EQUIPMENT REQUIRED TO SCHEME WORK.

General Protection Philosophy

Objective of relay protection


Protect persons and equipment in the surrounding of the power system Protect apparatus in the power system Separate faulty parts from the rest of the power system to facilitate the operation of the healthy part of the system

General Protection Philosophy


REQUIREMENT OF PROTECTION SYSTEM:
1.
2.

RELIABILITY
SELECTIVITY

3.
4.

STABILITY
SPEED

5.

SENSITIVITY

General Protection Philosophy


1. RELIABILITY:

THE PROTECTION SYSTEM PROVIDED REQUIRED TO BE HIGHLY RELIABLE FOR MAXIMUM UTILIZATION OF SYSTEM. TODAYS SYSTEMS ARE VERY HUGE AND IN SUCH A HUGE SYSTEM, THE RISK OF OCCURRING OF FAULT CAN NOT BE IGNORED. THE PROTECTION SYSTEM MUST OPERATE TO ISOLATE THE FAULT RELIABLY IS UTMOST IMPORTANCE. ANY NON OPERATION MAY LEAD TO CATASTROPHIC CONSEQUENCE FOR POWER SYSTEM AND MAY LEAD TO MULTIPLE FAILURE. THUS PROTECTION SYSTEM MUST BE RELIABLE.

General Protection Philosophy


2. SELECTIVITY:
THE PROTECTION IS GENERALLY ARRANGED IN ZONES WHICH SHOULD COVER THE POWER SYSTEM COMPLETELY, LEAVING NO PART UNPROTECTED. WHEN A FAULT OCCURS THE PROTECTION IS REQUIRED TO SELECT AND TRIP ONLY THE NEAREST CIRCUIT BREAKERS TO AFFECT MINIMUM POSSIBLE OUTAGE. THIS PROPERTY OF SELECTIVITY IS ALSO CALLED DISCRIMINATION AND IS ACHIEVED BY TWO GENERAL METHODS: a. TIME GRADED SYSTEM

b. UNIT SYSTEM

General Protection Philosophy


3. STABILITY:

THIS TERM APPLIED TO PROTECTION AS DISTINCT FROM THE POWER SYSTEM, REFERS TO THE ABILITY OF THIS PROTECTION SYSTEM TO REMAIN INERT TO ALL LOAD CONDITIONS AND FAULT

EXTERNAL (THROUGH FAULT) TO THE RELEVANT ZONE. THE SYSTEM MUST REMAIN STABLE IN CASE OF FAULTS OCCURRING OUTSIDE THE PROTECTED ZONE AND SHOULD NOT TRIP.

General Protection Philosophy


4. SPEED:

THE FUNCTION OF PROTECTION IS TO ISOLATE FAULTS FROM THE POWER SYSTEM IN MINIMUM POSSIBLE TIME TO LIMIT THE DAMAGE TO POWER SYSTEM EQUIPMENT THAT MAY BE GENERATORS, TRANSMISSION LINES, REACTORS, TRANSFORMER, BUS BARS ETC. THE OBJECT IS TO SAFEGUARD CONTINUITY OF SUPPLY BY REMOVING EACH DISTURBANCE BEFORE IT LEADS TO WIDESPREAD AFFECT IN THE POWER SYSTEM CAUSING MULTIPLE OUTAGES.

General Protection Philosophy


5. SENSITIVITY:

SENSITIVITY IS A TERM FREQUENTLY USED WHEN REFERRING TO THE MINIMUM OPERATING QUANTITY THAT MAY BE CURRENT, VOLTAGE OF A COMPLETE PROTECTION SYSTEM. THE PROTECTION SYSTEM MUST BE ABLE TO SENSE THE FAULT IN MINIMUM POSSIBLE VOLTAGE/CURRENT TO SUCCESSFULLY IDENTIFY THE FAULT AND ISOLATE THE SAME.

General Protection Philosophy EQUIPMENT TO BE PROTECTED


TRANSMISSION LINES TRANSFORMERS REACTORS BUS BARS CAPACITOR BANKS ETC.

General Protection Philosophy


Electrical faults in the power system
Transmission lines Busbar Transformer/ Generator
Total

85% 12% 3%
100%

General Protection Philosophy

General Protection Philosophy

Line Fault Statistics


Single phase to earth Two phases to earth Phase to phase faults Three phase faults 80% 10% 5% 5%

The probability of line faults caused by lightnings are 0,2-3 faults/ 100 km and year

General Protection Philosophy

Fault types
Transient faults are common on transmission lines, approximately 80-85% lightnings are the most common reason can also be caused by birds, falling trees, swinging lines etc. will disappear after a short dead interval Persistent faults can be caused by a broken conductor fallen down can be a tree falling on a line must be located and repaired before normal service

General Protection Philosophy

Measuring Principles
Overcurrent protection Differential protection Phase comparison Directional- wave protection Distance protection

General Protection Philosophy


Overcurrent Protection
Over current protection is mainly provided with distribution feeders. It is a simply current protection which operates on the basis of current settings. To discriminate between the faults on a network normally an IDMT characteristics are selected.
In distribution network the main protection provided on the network is Over current protection with IDMT characteristics.

In EHV network, over current protection in the form of directional back up over current earth fault protection is used. This is basically important protection to clear high resistance earth fault which is otherwise not detected by distance protection.

General Protection Philosophy


Differential Protection
Differential protection is mainly provided with distribution feeders. It is a simply current differential protection which operates on the basis of differential current settings. This protection is a unit protection and requires the information from remote end as well.
This is a very fast and secure protection and is successful for very complex networks as well. Its utility is well proven in case of series compensated lines as well which otherwise is difficult to set. In EHV network also, some utilities are using this protection as Main-II world wide such as DEWA.

General Protection Philosophy


Phase Comparison and Directional Wave Detection Protection
This is somewhat similar to differential protection. It works basically on the basis of difference of phasor angle of both sides.

This is a very fast and secure protection and is successful for very complex networks as well.
Its utility is well proven in case of series compensated lines as well which otherwise is difficult to set.

General Protection Philosophy

The Principle of Distance Protection


ZK=Uk/ Ik

Uk
A

Uk=0
metallic fault

Zk Z<

Ik

General Protection Philosophy


The principle of distance protection
Power lines have impedances of size 0,3- 0,4 ohm/ km and normal angles of 80 - 85 degrees in a 50Hz systems.
A

ZL=R+jX

Z<

Z<

The line impedance may be converted to secondary values with the formula: VTsec x CTprim x Zprim Zsec= CT sec VTprim
But with advent of Numerical Technology it is no more necessary to specify the impedance in secondary value.

General Protection Philosophy

The principle of distance t protection


t3 t2 t1

l
A
f 1 f 2

B
f 3

Z<

Z<

Z<

Z<

t
t3 t2 t1

General Protection Philosophy


THE FIREST ZONE CHARACTERISTIC
SHOULD COVER AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE OF PROTECTED CIRCUIT AND OF ADDITIONAL RESISTANCE. IN CASE OF PH TO GROUND FAULT FOLLOWED BY RECLOSURE TO TRIPPING IN UNFAULTED PHASES. FAST OPERATION DIRECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION.

General Protection Philosophy


THE FIRST ZONE CHARACTERISTIC

EXTENSION UPWARDS AND TO THE RIGHT SHOULD ENCLOSE AS MUCH OF LINE IMPEDANCE AND ADDITIONAL RESISTANCE WITHOUT OVERREACH. REACH IN RESISTIVE DIRECTION SHOULD BE LARGE ENOUGH TO COVER LARGE RESISTANCE AND TO GET GOOD DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE BUT LIMITED TO AVOID UNWANTED TRIPPING IN CASE F POWER SWINGS , OVERREACH IN ADDITIONAL RESISTANCE IS SEEN WITH LARGE CAPACITIVE REACTANCE , SHORT TIME OVERLOADING.

General Protection Philosophy

THE SECOND ZONE CHARACTERISTIC


EXTENSION UPWARDS IS DECIDED BY IMPEDANCE OF PROTECTED LINE AND SETTING OF ZONE OF ADJACENT LINES. IN MOST CASES R-AXIS REACH OF ZONE - II SAME AS ZONE -I IS SATISFACTORY. IF ADDITIONAL RESISTANCES ARE EXPECTED WHICH ZONE - I IS NOT ABLE TO COVER THEN DIFFERENT SETTING FOR ZONE - II IS ADVANTAGEOUS.

General Protection Philosophy


THE THIRD ZONE CHARACTERISTIC THIS IS THE WIDEST OF ZONES IN WHICH TRIPPING CAN OCCUR AFTER LONGEST TIME DELAY. IS REQUIRED TO GIVE REMOTE BACKUP THOUGH IN MANY CASES IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO GET COMPEREHENSIVE REMOTE BACK UP.

General Protection Philosophy


COMMONLY USED RELAYS:
ELECTROMEHA NICAL RELAYS:

YTG RELAYS

STATIC RELAYS:

MICROMHO RELAYS

OPTIMHO RELAYS

RAZFE RELAYS

LZ96 RELAYS

NUMERICAL RELAYS (1ST GEN):

EPAC RELAYS

7SA513 REALYS

REL 100 RELAYS

REL 511 RELAYS

D30 RELAYS

NUMERICAL
RELAYS (LATEST GEN)

MICOM RELAYS

7SA522 RELAYS

REL 531 RELAYS

REL 670 RELAYS

D 90 RELAYS

General Protection Philosophy

General Protection Philosophy

General Protection Philosophy


Transformer is a static device used to transform the electrical energy from one alternating current circuit to another without any change in frequency. Power Transformer is a vital link in a power transmission system and distribution A Power Transformer is an important and expensive part of a power network. The impact of a transformer fault is more serious than a transmission line outage.

General Protection Philosophy


High availability of the power Transformer is therefore very important in order to prevent disturbances in the power networks transfer of power.

Following are important.


High quality transformer.

Operating the transformer within specified limits of temperature and voltage.


Proper checking and maintaining OLTC.

Providing suitable protective relays and monitoring devices.

General Protection Philosophy


Why we need to protect a Transformer?
To Protect the Transformer from severe damages. 2. Time required to rectify the Transformer in case of damages is more and it is very difficult. 3. Operation of a power network, when the power transformer is out of service is always difficult. 4. A Power Transformer fault therefore often is a more severe disturbance for the network, than an overhead line fault which usually can be repaired rather quickly.
1.

General Protection Philosophy


TYPE OF FAULTS TYPE OF FAULTS 1.Incipient faults

2.Internal faults

3.External fault

General Protection Philosophy


What are the faults which can occur in a transformer or conditions leading to faults?
1.Insulation Breakdown 2.Phase to phase and Phase to Ground Fault 3.Reduced Cooling 4.Over heating due to over excitation 5.Oil contamination and leakage 6.Aging of Insulation 7.Turn to Turn Fault 8.OVERLOAD OPERATION

General Protection Philosophy


TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION DIRECTIONAL OVER CURRENT PROTECTION DIRECTIONAL EARTH FAULT PROTECTION OVER FLUXING PROTECTION OVER LOAD PROTECTION (ALARM ONLY ) OTHER MECHANICAL PROTECTION AS PER MANUFACTURER

General Protection Philosophy

Transformer protection
The protection of transformer can involve following separate or integrated protection systems Protection of winding Protection of Core Oil based protection system

General Protection Philosophy


Transformer protection- Winding Protection
The techniques involved in the winding protection are Differential Protection which may be low impedance ( current operated ) or high impedance type ( voltage operated). Restricted earth fault protection. Overload protection based on winding current

General Protection Philosophy


Transformer protection- Winding Protection
Overload Protection based on sensing of winding temperature. Overload protection based on sensing of oil temperature Backup over current protection which is designed to operate when the primary protection of the system to which the transformer is feeding fails

General Protection Philosophy


Transformer protection- Core Protection
Transformer core need to be protected form over excitation. Over excitation condition is different form the over voltage condition. Over excitation can happen even when there is normal voltage associated with low frequency. Over excitation is provided on both the primary and the secondary winding.

General Protection Philosophy


Transformer protection- Oil based Protection
Buchholz relay is oil based protection which operates on the principle of oil surges and detect and incipient fault. Oil temperature is also used to sound alarm and to trip the transformer as required by the temperature reading

General Protection Philosophy


Transformer protection- Tank Protection
Each transformer is provided with pressure release vent ( PRD )at one or more location depending upon the size of the transformer. The PRD releases the gas pressure of the transformer generated by some abnormality thus preventing the transformer from rupturing. It is Main-2 to the Bucholz relay

General Protection Philosophy


COMMONLY USED REALYS:
ELECTROMEHANIC AL RELAYS:

CAG RELAYS

CDG RELAYS

CDD RELAYS

STATIC RELAYS:

RADHD

RADHA

RADHB

RAPDK3

NUMERICAL RELAYS (1ST GEN):

7UT61X

MICOMM RELAYS 7UT61X RELAYS

RET 521

T30 RELAYS T 60 RELAYS

NUMERICAL
RELAYS (LATEST GEN)

MICOM RELAYS

RET 670 RELAYS

General Protection Philosophy

General Protection Philosophy


REACTOR PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION DIRECTIONAL OVER CURRENT PROTECTION / OR BACK UP IMPEDANCE PROTECTION

OTHER MECHANICAL PROTECTION AS PER MANUFACTURER

General Protection Philosophy

Reactor protection- Winding Protection


Differential Protection which may be low impedance ( current operated ) or high impedance type ( voltage operated). Before the introduction of numerical relays this protection was high impedance type in general. Restricted earth fault protection. Backup impedance protection.

General Protection Philosophy Reactor protection- Oil based Protection


Buchholz relay is oil based protection which operates on the principle of oil surges and detect and incipient fault. Oil temperature is also used to sound alarm and to trip the reactor as required by the temperature reading

General Protection Philosophy

Reactor protection- Tank Protection


Each transformer is provided with pressure release vent ( PRD )at one or more location depending upon the size of the transformer. The PRD releases the gas pressure of the transformer generated by some abnormality thus preventing the transformer from rupturing. It is Main-2 to the Bucholz relay

General Protection Philosophy


COMMONLY USED REALYS:
ELECTROMEHANIC AL RELAYS:

CAG RELAYS

YTG RELAYS

STATIC RELAYS:

RADHD

RADHA

THR

RAKZB

NUMERICAL RELAYS (1ST GEN):

7UT61X

MICOMM RELAYS 7UT61X RELAYS

RET 521

T30 RELAYS T 60 RELAYS

NUMERICAL
RELAYS (LATEST GEN)

MICOM RELAYS

RET 670 RELAYS

General Protection Philosophy

General Protection Philosophy

Bus Bar Protection


Introduction:
The protection scheme for a power system should cover the whole system against all probable types of faults.
An uncleared fault on Bus will cause extensive damage to the substation equipment due to concentration of fault MVA. It may cause even grid disturbance due to loss of number of feeders/transformers simultaneously. Back up protection such as distance relays, Over current etc. do sense faults in Bus Bar zone fault in cleared only after time delay.

Unit protection i.e. Phase comparison relays P-40. RALZB can not sense the faults in bus Zone.
Hence Bus Bar protection scheme is compulsorily provided on EHV sub-stations beyond 132kV Level.

General Protection Philosophy


NEED FOR BUS PROTECTION
IN ITS ABSENCE FAULT CLEARANCE TAKES PLACE IN ZONE-II OF DISTANCE RELAY BY REMOTE END TRIPPING. THIS MEANS SLOW AND UNSELECTIVE TRIPPING AND WIDE SPREAD BLACK OUT.

EFFECT OF DELAYED CLEARANCE


GREATER DAMAGE AT FAULT POINT. INDIRECT SHOCK TO CONNECTED EQUIPMENTS LIKE SHAFTS OF GENERATOR AND WINDINGS OF TRANSFORMER

General Protection Philosophy


Bus Bar Faults:
1. Majority of Bus Faults involve one phase and earth. 2. A large proportion of Bus Bar faults result from human error rather than the failure of switchgear components.

Protection Requirement:
1. Speed is required for following reasons: a. Limitation of Consequential Damage b. Removal of Bus Faults in less time than could be achieved by Back up protection so as to maintain the system stability. The basis of most modern schemes is a differential system capable of operating in a time of the order of one cycle.

General Protection Philosophy


BUSBAR PROTECTION SYSTEMS
Low Impedance Differential Protection
The most suitable protection scheme for Double and multiple busbar Systems (with or without transfer bus) with feeders being switched Between sections of the busbar, which operates with full selectivity For all possible busbar configurations.

High Impedance Differential Protection


The High-impedance protection scheme, on the other hand, is a good Solution for single busbar arrangements, 1 breaker systems or ring Busbars, providing that appropriate dedicated CT cores are available For this use alone.

General Protection Philosophy


REQUIREMENT OF INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
CURRENT TRANSFORMERS:
Generally has five cores and used as detailed under: Core-1 : Bus Bar Protection Core-2 : Bus Bar Protection Core-3 : Metering Core-4 : Line/Transformer Protection Core 5: Line/Transformer Protection

VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER
Generally has three cores Core-1 : Line Protection/Transformer Protection Core 2: Line Protection Core 3: Metering

General Protection Philosophy