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Distance Measuring Equipment

DME

Outlines

Function. Operation. System Component.

Function
Determines the slant range between an airplane and a
selected VOR ground station in NM (line of sight) by timing a signal being sent from the A/C to the GND station then the GND station replay (interrogation then replay).
T

2T + 50 us

VOR DME ADF

GND station location


DME station located at a VOR station or near an ILS
station at an airport.

When a VOR or LOC frequency has been selected the


frequency of the associated DME station (if there is one) is simultaneously selected.

Operation
DME system consists of DME interrogator at the aircraft
and DME ground station.

DME interrogator transmits its uniquely randomly


spaced pulse pairs to the ground station.

Operation
After short delay (50 s), the DME ground station
retransmits these pulse pairs at a frequency either above or below the frequency of the transmitted signal by 63 MHz.

2T + 50 us

d = v T , where T is the round trip time

DME ANTENNAS

interrogation

Replay + 63 MHZ

PULSE PAIR GROUPS Randomly Spaced


STATION delays signal 50 microseconds then retransmits 63 MHZ ABOVE or BELOW received frequency
DME GROUND FACILITY

Operation
Randomly spaced pulses make it possible for
each DME system to discriminate between its own retransmitted signal and those of A/C s.

Random spacing identification also makes it


possible for the A/C receiver to determine the elapsed time between transmission from A/C & receiving of that signal retransmitted from ground station.

Let us get closer to the DME interrogator and discuss its system components in details.

DME interrogator

AUDIO IDENTIFICATION
RECEIVER

TO FLIGHT INTERPHONE SYSTEM

MATCHING CKTS
Lock on Delayed TX

DUPLEXER CONTROLLED VARIABLE DELAY TRANSMITTER RCVR/XMITR FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER

TO SUPPRESSOR BUS

I N D I C A T O R

FREQUENCY SELECTOR SIGNALS VHF/ NAV CTL PNL

System Component
1 Transmitter. 2 Receiver. 3 Duplexer. 4 Antenna. 5 Controlled variable delay. 6 Matching circuit. 7 Audio identification.

System Component
Transmitter :transmits the uniquely randomly spaced
pulse pairs to the ground station.

The transmitter is connected to a suppressor bus


which is connected also to ATC transponders.

When one transmitter connected to the suppressor bus


is transmitting other transmitters connected to the bus are suppressed to prevent interference.

System Component
Receiver : receives the retransmitted pulse pairs from
the ground station.

DME antenna : transmits DME interrogation and


receives the reply from the selected ground station.

DME 1, 2

System Component
Controlled variable delay: Delay the transmitted signal internally. Gives out a signal to the indicator to display the
equivalent distance of the delay set up in the controlled variable delay block.

System Component
Matching circuit: gives out the error information by
comparing the received signal with the delayed transmitted signal from the controlled variable delay block.

When the system is turn on, it is in the Search mode.


The controlled variable delay servo motor runs from zero to max. delay causing the indicator readout to change from zero to max. and back to zero until it matches the delayed transmitted signal to the received signal. During searching, the warning flag in the DME indicator is in view showing that the DME isnt operative.

System Component
The matching circuit causes the servo motor to Lock on
a particular delay (equivalent to a particular distance lock on) when the matching circuit sees the same delay for the transmitted and received signals.

Lock on: means the servo motor stops its rapid search
and runs slowly after Lock on.

As long as the delayed transmitter signal matches the


received signal the distance indication is correct.

Note

When the A/C is near or over the beacon. The DME range is approx. = A/C altitude than the horizontal distance. This causes the GND speed indicated to be slower than the actual GND speed. To overcome this problem, the indicator goes to the Memory mode when the A/C is 20 NM from the beacon and indicates the last calculated GND speed and correct it for the slant range at 20 NM until the A/C pass another 20 NM on the other side of the beacon.

DME modes
1.

2.
3.

Search mode. Lock on mode. Memory mode.

System Component
Audio identification (audio detector): sends the
information (identification tone in Morse code) on an audio frequency of 1350 HZ to the flight interphone system in the cockpit.

Indicator

DDRMI

DME CTL PNL

If the DME function knob is in the normal (DME) position distance indication up to 199 miles will be given for VOR stations and up to 50 miles will be given to ILS stations

DME CTL PNL

If the knob in the override position distances up to 199 miles will be given for localizer stations.

DME CTL PNL

When the knob in test position flag , blank ,and 000.0 indication appear in succession in one type of DME.

Note

Both DME and ATC operate in the same frequency range (UHF band) so they have an identical and interchangeable antenna.