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# A STUDY ON FACE RECOGNITION TECHNIQUE BASED ON EIGENFACE

## By: Sadique Nayeem

Pondicherry University

Outline
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## Future Enhancement Conclusions

Overview
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Face recognition system consist of three component. Face Representation: How to model a face?

Template-based approaches Feature-based approaches Appearance-based approaches Manipulation of images in face space Utilization of elliptical shape of human head

## Face Identification: database.

Compare

given

image

with

Performance affected by scale, pose, illumination, facial expression, and disguise, etc.

Eigenfaces Approach
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## In the language of information theory

the main objective is to mine the relevant information in a face image, encode it as efficiently as possible and compare one face encoding with a database of face images encoded in the same process.

In mathematical terms

Find the principal components of the face distribution, or the eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the set of face images, called eigenfaces.
Eigenfaces are a set of features that characterize the variation between face images. Each training face image can be represented in terms of a linear combination of the eigenfaces, so can the new input image. Compare the feature weights of the new input image with those of the known individuals

Eigenface Initialization
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The eigenfaces approach for face recognition involves the following initialization operations:

Acquire a set of training images. Calculate the eigenfaces from the training set, keeping only the best M images with the highest eigenvalues. These M images define the face space. As new faces are experienced, the eigenfaces can be updated. Calculate the corresponding distribution in M-dimensional weight space for each known individual (training image), by projecting their face images onto the face space.

Eigenface Recognition
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Having initialized the system, the following steps are used to recognize new face images:

Given an image to be recognized, calculate a set of weights of the M eigenfaces by projecting it onto each of the eigenfaces. Determine if the image is a face at all by checking to see if the image is sufficiently close to the face space. If it is a face, classify the weight pattern as either a known person or as unknown.

## Figure : Eigenfaces of Essex face database -'face94'

Image Database
7 Name of database Source Image format Image size Image type Number of unique individual Total number of images Variations Sample Image

IFD

## IIT Kanpur [3]

JPG

110 X 75

Color

60

660

8 pose, 3 emotion

## University of Essex, UK [4]

JPG

90 X 100

Color

152

3040

facial expression, slight head tilt. facial expression, w/o glasses lighting, expression, background

## Yale university [5] California Institute of Technology [6]

GIF

320 X 243

Grey

15

165

Face 1999

JPG

300X198

Color

26

450

Experimental Result
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Eigenface face recognition with different sample images
Name of databas e Total No. of unique person No. of samples of each image in training set No. of image in training set No. of False recognition Accuracy rate (%) Name of databas e

## Eigenface face recognition with different sample images

Total No. of unique person No. of samples of each image in training set No. of image in training set No. of False recognition Accuracy rate (%)

IFD

60

Esse x face

152

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540 600 660 152 304 456 608 760 912 1064 1216 1368 1520 1672

31 25 16 16 12 8 3 2 1 1 1 47 29 12 11 11 10 10 9 8 8 6

49.18 59.01 73.77 73.77 80.32 86.88 95.08 96.72 98.36 98.36 98.36 69.07 80.92 92.10 92.76 92.76 93.42 93.42 94.07 94.73 94.73 96.05

Yale

15

Face 1999

26

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 26 52 78 104 130 156 182 208 234 260 286

8 2 3 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 17 15 14 9 9 8 5 5 3 2 1

46.66 86.66 80.00 80.00 86.66 93.33 86.66 93.33 93.33 93.33 93.33 34.61 42.30 46.15 65.38 65.38 69.23 80.76 80.76 88.46 92.30 96.15

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## Recognition Accuracy (%)

Number of samples

Future Enhancement
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According to the experimental result, recognition with one sample per person does not give better recognition rate in all cases. But, in real time application only one sample per person will be available ( as in case of voter card, Driving license, passport or ADHAAR Card). So, recognition from single sample per person is needed. One sample per person is easy to collect, save storage cost and save computational cost.

Problem Statement
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This problem can be defined as follows: Given a stored database of faces with only one image per person, the goal is to identify a person from the database later in time in any different and unpredictable poses, lighting, disguise, etc from the individual image.

Proposed Idea
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1.2 billion population of India is being enrolled for ADHAAR Card with different biometric. Face image is also being collected. The ADHAAR Card or UID no. can be used as a platform on which different application can be developed as under:

## Proposed Idea (contd.)

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To restrain the crime, ADHAAR Card can be the best source for identification. Individual images in ADHAAR Card may work as training set. CCTV images from crime scene can be used as test image.

Procedure:

## Capture the video from the CCTV camera.

Detect the human face in the CCTV video. Take the CCTV image as the test image. Do the preprocessing on the CCTV image i.e

Crop both the eyes, eyebrow, nose, and mouth. Crop both the eyes, eyebrow, nose, and mouth

## Apply the Eigenface PCA for the Recognition

Conclusions
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Eigenface PCA is one of the most successful technique and it gives better result for more number of samples in training set. It does not produce good result for single sample per person.

The need for real time application can be given by only single sample per person.
Taking ADHAAR Card as a platform, Artificial Face Recognition system can be developed by using PCA on reconstructed image.

Reference
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1.

Eigenfaces for recognition, M. Turk and A. Pentland, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol.3, No.1, 1991 Automatic recognition and analysis of human faces and facial expressions: A survey, A. Samal and P. A. Iyengar, Pattern Recognition, 25(1): 65-77, 1992 The Indian Face Database, Vidit Jain, Amitabha Mukherjee, 2002, http://viswww.cs.umass.edu/~vidit/IndianFaceDatabase/

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## Essex face database -face94, University of Essex, UK, http://cswww.essex.ac.uk/mv/allfaces/index.html

Yale Database, http://cvc.yale.edu/projects/yalefaces/yalefaces.html FACE 1999, http://www.vision.caltech.edu/html-files/archive.html

5. 6.

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Thank You !