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STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF NOVEL FACE RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES USING PCA, LDA AND GENETIC ALGORITHM

By:

Sadique Nayeem
Pondicherry University

Outline
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Overview Image Database PCA & LDA Experimental Result Proposed Method Implementation Experimental Result Conclusions

Overview
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The face plays a major role in our social interaction in conveying identity and emotion. Face recognition by human is quite robust, despite large changes in the visual stimulus due to viewing conditions, expression, aging, and distractions such as glasses or changes in hairstyle. Developing a computational model of face recognition is quite difficult, because faces are complex, multidimensional, and subject to change over time. In the last two decade, a number of face recognition technique has been developed, but they lack in robustness and they work well for specific face databases.

Image Database
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Name of databas e IFD

Source

Image format

Image size

Imag e type

Number of unique individua l 60

Total numb er of image s 660

Variations

Sample Image

IIT Kanpur University of Essex, UK

JPEG

110 X 75

Color

8 pose, 3 emotion facial expression, slight head tilt. facial expression, w/o glasses lighting, expression, Background

Essex face databas eface94 Yale

JPEG

90 X 100

Color

152

3040

Yale university California Institute of Technolo gy University

GIF

320 X 243 300 X 198

Gray

15

165

Face 1999

JPEG

Color

26

450

UMIST

JPEG

92 X 112

Gray

20

564

Vary pose

PRINCIPLE COMPONENT ANALYSIS RESULT


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NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS: 273 NUMBER OF IMAGES USED : 18018


100 90 80

Recognition Accuracy (%)

70 IFD 60 50 40 UMIST 30 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Face94 Yale Face 1999

Number of samples
Fig. 1 Result of PCA

LINEAR DISRIMINANT ANALYSIS RESULT


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NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS: 273 NUMBER OF IMAGES USED : 18018


100 90 80

Recognition Accuracy (%)

70 60 IFD 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Face94 Yale Face 1999 UMIST

Number of samples
Fig. 2 Result of LDA

PROPOSED METHOD

Genetic Algorithm Applied to Face Recognition


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A method for face recognition by genetic algorithm has been proposed. First of all, a set of training images and testing images are given STEPS:
1.

Convert all the images of the training set into gray scale then into column vector as shown in the figure below:

Fig. 3 Converting training set image into column vector

Genetic Algorithm Applied to Face Recognition


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2.

Select the image (to be tested) from the testing set, convert the image into gray scale then into column vector as shown in the figure below:

Fig. 4 Converting testing image into column vector

3.

For more than one sample per person apply crossover operator to produce more number of images otherwise go to a b c per person d 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 step 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 4.
I. 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 II. 0 0 0 1 00 0 0 0 0 0 1 10 1 0 III.

Genetic Algorithm Applied to Face Recognition


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4.

For one sample per person apply mutation at the least significant bits of chromosome. a b

Fig. 5 Mutation applied to image vector

5.

Determine the fitness function value by using the Euclidian distance between the test image and the training set images.

Genetic Algorithm Applied to Face Recognition


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6.

If any individual obtain a value of the fitness function below the threshold one, the system recognizes the image same as the test image, otherwise. Increase the generation count. Go to step 3 and repeat step 3 to 8 till the counter has reached a maximum number generation T (defined by the user).

7.

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EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF GENETIC ALGORITHM APPLIED TO FACE RECOGNITION

Selection of Training Set and Testing set


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Fig. 6 Selecting training database

Fig. 7 Selecting training database

Selection of Test Image & Output


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Fig. 8 Input the test image.

Fig. 9 Test image as the input

Fig. 10 Equivalent image as the output

Result at Generation: 0
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Generation: 0
100 90 80 70 60 50 IFD Face94

Recognition Accuracy (%)

Yale 40
30 20 1 2 3 4 5 Face 1999 UMIST

Number of samples
Fig. 11 Result at Generation 0

Result at Generation: 1
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Generation: 1
100
90

Recognition Accuracy (%)

80
70 IFD 60 50 40 30 20 1 2 3 4 5 Face94 Yale

Face 1999 UMIST

Number of samples
Fig. 12 Result at Generation 1

Result at Generation: 2
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Generation: 2
100
90 80

Recognition Accuracy (%)

70 IFD 60 50 40 30 20 1 2 3 4 5 Face94 Yale Face 1999 UMIST

Number of samples
Fig. 13 Result at Generation 2

Result at Generation: 3
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Generation: 3
100
90 80

Recognition Accuracy (%)

70 60 50 40 30 20 1 2 3 4 5 IFD Face94 Yale Face 1999 UMIST

Number of samples
Fig. 14 Result at Generation 3

Result at Generation: 4
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Generation: 4
100 90 80

Recognition Accuracy (%)

70 IFD 60 Face94

50
40 30 20 1 2 3 4 5

Yale Face 1999


UMIST

Number of samples
Fig. 15 Result at Generation 4

Conclusions
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PCA and LDA technique for face recognition fails for one image per person but gives good result for around 10 image per person. Collection, storage and computation of 10 images per person for face recognition system is not possible. Genetic algorithm provides good result for one image per person and instead of 10 images per person in PCA and LDA, Genetic algorithm gives almost same result with 5 images per person. Thus application of genetic algorithm reduces the problems of collection and storage of images and computation complexity of the face recognition system. In future different classifier can be used in place of PCA.

Publication
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A Study on Face Recognition Technique based on Eigenface, Dr. S. Ravi, Sadique Nayeem, International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS), Foundation of Computer Science FCS, New York, USA Volume 5 No.4, March 2013. Face Recognition using PCA and LDA: Analysis and Comparison, Dr. S. Ravi, Sadique Nayeem. Uploaded in International Conference on Advances in Recent Technologies in Communication & Computing 2013, to be organized by ACEEE.

Reference
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1.

Eigenfaces for recognition, M. Turk and A. Pentland, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol.3, No.1, 1991

2.

Automatic recognition and analysis of human faces and facial expressions: A survey, A. Samal and P. A. Iyengar, Pattern Recognition, 25(1): 65-77, 1992
Using Discriminant Eigenfeatures for Image Retrieval, D.L.Swets and J. Weng, IEEE Transaction on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 18, No. 8 August 1996. The Indian Face Database, Vidit Jain, Amitabha Mukherjee, 2002, http://viswww.cs.umass.edu/~vidit/IndianFaceDatabase/ Essex face database -face94, University of Essex, UK, http://cswww.essex.ac.uk/mv/allfaces/index.html Yale Database, http://cvc.yale.edu/projects/yalefaces/yalefaces.html FACE 1999, http://www.vision.caltech.edu/html-files/archive.html UMIST Face Database, http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/eee/research/iel/research/face Handbook of Face Recognition, Stan Z. Li. and Anil K. Zain, Springer.

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Thank You !