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Module-1 INDIA’S HIGHWAYS,AIRPORTS & PORTS PROGRAMMES AND FUTURE SCENARIO
Introduction to Transportation Engineering
Major transportation modes are 2. Roads 3. Railways 4. Airways 5. Waterways apart from the above modes pipe lines and rope ways are use as additional modes depending on requirement
Transportation is vital for the economic development of the country, also India has about 5,75,000 villages inhabited with 60% of the population. Hence rural connectivity is possible only with adequate road transportation. Good network of roads is essential for agricultural & industrial inputs and outputs.
Roads are also essential for the development of tourism industry and mobilization of defense and police forces across the country. Border roads are essential to safe guard the boundaries of the country against external aggression.
After the first world war there was large scale import of vehicles in to the country and existing roads started deteriorating. The government felt the need for the road improvement as India had around 600 provinces under the rule of kings across the country who were not interested in any type in the country.
the Govt. appointed in 1927 a committee headed by Jayakar to recommend guidelines for the development of the roads in the country. The report was submitted in 1928 in the form of 4 major recommendations.
Jayakar Committee Recommendaations
• Road construction should be considered as national interest as it is beyond the capacity of the provincial Govt. to take up the road development • To levy an extra tax on petrol to develop CENTRAL ROAD FUND (CRF) • To form a semi technical body to pool technical know how from various parts of the country about the roads • To establish a research organization to carry out research and development related to roads
Implementation of recommendations
1.An extra tax was levied on petrol to generate CRF (1929) and the amount generated is to be given as for states for the road development. 80 % for states and 20 % for maintenance, administration of fund. Accountant General of Central Revenues and Expenditure is empowered, through Roads wing of Ministry of Transport to administer the generated fund
2. Indian Roads Congress (IRC) was formed in 1934 to pool information about planning, construction and maintenance of roads, to recommend standard specification and to provide platform for expression of professional opinion. IRC publishes technical journals, research publications, standards and specifications related to highway engineering. It works in collaboration with Roads wing of Ministry of Surface Transport, Govt. of India
3.Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) was established in 1950 at New Delhi for carrying out research in various aspects of highway engineering. This organization is managed by CSIR. It is engaged in applied research and offers technical advice to State Govt. and industries to various problems concerning roads.
4. Highway Research Board (HRB) was started in 1973 to give proper direction and guidance for road research activities in India. HRB publishes technical journals related to the field of highway engineering.
Road Transport Characteristics
Advantages 1.Accommodates heterogeneous traffic 2. Requires relatively small investment 3. Requires less maintenance cost 4. Freedom and flexibility of movement to vehicles is available 5. Suitable for short haul operations
6. Door to door service is available Disadvantages: 1. Results in large number of accidents with causalities and injuries 2. Results in large air and noise pollution 3. Very high gradients can not be provided. 4. Roads are subjected to severe atmospheric conditions
National Transport Policy Committee (1978)
Govt. of India appointed the committee to prepare a comprehensive national transport policy for India for the years to come Liberalization of transport sector To include transportation in priority sector Optimal mix of road and railway sector and energy conservation To strengthen National Highway System
As per the III Road Development Plan the roads are classified as follows 2. Primary System: i) Expressways ii) National Highways Expressways are constructed in high traffic corridors with divided carriageways, controlled access , grade separators at intersections where other roads/ railways cross . This is provided for fast movement of vehicles and may be owned by Central / State Govt.
• A) State highways (SH) • B) Major District Roads (MDR)
Rural roads • 1) Other District Roads (ODR) • 2) Village Roads (VR)
• These connect major ports, foreign highways, State Capitals, large industrial and Tourist Centers , roads required for strategic movement like defense. These roads give uninterrupted road communication throughout India around the year and should connect the entire national network. NH are designated by numbers like NH1, NH4, NH48, NH1-A etc
• Arterial roads of a state that connects NH, district head quarters , important centers in state and serves as main arteries for traffic to and from district roads NH and SH have same specifications with regards to design speed and standards for road geometrics.
Major District Roads (MDR)
• Serves areas of production and markets and have low specifications
Other District Roads (ODR)
• Serves rural areas of production and providing outlets to market centers, taluk HQ and other main roads. • These roads have lower specifications than MDR
Village Roads (VR)
• These connect villages or a group of villages and nearest highway of higher category or railway station. These roads facilitate to transport goods and agricultural inputs and outputs from villages to near by town or highway thus fulfilling transport requirements of villagers.
• National Highways Development Authority • Airports Authority of India this was constituted by an act in 1988 passed in Parliament for entrusting the responsibility of development, maintenance and Management of National Highways to it and for matters connected or incidental thereto and made operational in 1995
INSTITUTIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT TRANSPORT SECTOR
• • • • Expenditure secretary Planning secretary Road Transport Secretary Director General
The NHAI has been entrusted with the NH projects under loan schemes from funding agencies like Asian Development Bank, Overseas Economic Co-operation Fund and World Bank. It is also responsible for construction and maintenance of Golden Quadrilateral and North South and East West corridors providing port connectivity and also some selected projects like Naini Bridge, Hapur By pass, Durg By pass etc.
• Naini Bridge is a prestigious project of 294.7 Crores. A cable stayed Bridge is to be constructed across Jamuna river on NH27 connecting Naini with Allahabad
Indian Road Network comprises of 2. NH-65,569 km 3. SH- 1,31,899 km 4. MDR- 4,67,763 km 5. ODR+VR- 26,50,000 km Total= 33,00,000 km (Approx.)
• National Highways constitute less than 2% length of Network, but carry 40% of total commercial traffic (trucks). • There is a shift in transportation mode from towards Road sector current status Road Railways Passenger 85% 15% Freight 70% 30%
A) primary Network →only 2-3% are 4 laned 15% single laned B) Secondary Network suffers from severe capacity constraints and lack of mobility C) Tertiary Network - connectivity not adequate - 40% inhabitants not connected by all weather roads
Aimed at attracting private investments and supports in the following aspects • Govt. will carryout all preparatory work including land acquisition and utility removal. Right of way to be made available to concessionaires free from all encumbrances. (ROW- Land that is acquired for construction empowered with Govt.) • NHAI and Govt. of India (GOI) will provide capital grant up to 40% of project cost to enhance viability on a case to case basis
3.100% tax exemption for 5 years and 30% relief for nest 5 years which may be availed in 20 years 4.Concession period allowed up to 30 years 5.Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996 based on actual provisions (UNICITRAL) 6.In BOT projects entrepreneurs are allowed to collect and retain tolls 7.Duty free import of specified modern high capacity equipment for highway construction
For completing both GQ and NSEW corridor projects, the funds generated are as follows based on 1999 price levels • Cess 20,000 Cr • WB/ADB 20,000 Cr • Market Borrowings 12,000 Cr • Private Sector 6,000 Cr Total 56,000 Cr
Through Budgetary allocations from GoI Cess: it was introduced on petrol and diesel to collect 2,000 Crores per annum. It was to be exclusively utilized only for modern road building activities exclusive of CRF to the following programmes. 3. Construction and maintenance of SH by Govts. 4. Development of Rural roads by State Govt. 5. Construction of Rail over Bridge by Indian Railways 6. Construction and maintenance of NH by NHDP and Ministry of Road Transport and Highways
• Cess contributes 5-6 thousand Crores per annum towards NHDP. • Loan assistance is available from multilateral development agencies like ADB/WB/ other Overseas lending agencies like Japanese Bank of International Co- operation • NHAI proposes to tap the market by Securities Cess receipts
Private Sector Participation
• Govt. intends to attract foreign as well as domestic private investments and some projects are offered on BOT to private agencies. After the concession period, which can go up to 30 years, the road is to be transferred back to NHAI by the concessionary
Primary mandate is time and cost bound implementation of NHDP projects through hosts of funding options including from external multilateral agencies like World Bank ,ADB,JBIC etc. It aims at strengthening and four laning of high density corridors of around 13,146 km comprising
• GQ 5486 km connecting Delhi-Kanya KumariCalcutta –Mumbai • NSEW corridor of 7,300 km connecting Kashmir to Kanya kumari and Silchar to Porbandar • Providing road connectivity to major Ports • Involving the private sector in financing the construction , maintenance and Operation of NH and wayside amenities Improvement maintenance and management of the existing NH network
• Improvement of road safety measures and environment management • Introducing IT in construction, maintenance and all operation of NHAI
work mainly comprises of strengthening and four laning of high density corridors around 13,146 km this comprises GQ 5846 Km connecting DKCM NH2 Delhi Kolkata 1453 km NH4, NH7 and NH47 Chennai- Mumbai 1290 km
• NH5 and Nh6 Kolkata and Chennai 1684 km • NH8 Delhi-Mumbai 1419 km • Other than GQ NSEW corridors-7,300 km connecting Kashmir to Kanya Kumari including Salem-Kochin and Silchar to porbandar
Agencies Involved in Road Construction and Specifications
• Indian Road Construction Corporation LtdIRCC New Delhi • National Institute for Training for Highway Engineers (NITE) New Delhi • Indian Roads Congress (IRC) • Indian National Group of the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering End
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