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Group Dynamics, Team Building,

Leadership & Organization Effectiveness


GROUP & TEAM Group Dynamics Team building Analysis of team meetings Reflective learning & team process

Team Development

Change Drivers for And Teams Performance

Organizational Response Strategic alliances Information networking Downsizing Organizational Needs Desorbing Customer Satisfaction Decentralization Speed Reengineering Flexibility Cost Containment Team Advantages Quality Close to customer The Old System Innovation Rapid turnaround Slow to respond Timeliness Diverse representation Poor match with customer needs Accountability Less overhead Multilayered organization Creativity Authoritarian style Self monitoring Centralized decisions Increased ownership Traditional methods Flexible roles

Macro Drivers Demographics Globalization Information Technology Economy Competition

New Constants

Competitive compulsions

Internatio nalization

Collabora tion

Any number of people who Share goals Often communicate with another and are Few enough so that each individual may communicate with all others, person to person.

Group Dynamics
Term group dynamics refers to the interactions between people who are talking together in a group setting. Group dynamics can be studied in Business settings Volunteer settings Classroom settings, and Social settings. .

Group Roles
Group roles are largely determined by a combination of a persons personality and his or her experience with group settings.
Two most common roles affecting a groups effectiveness

Person who dominates ?

Person who remains silent ?

Getting Acquainted
People have created activities called Ice Breakers or Get-Acquainted Activities.

Group Problem Solving

Groups tend to form for one of two reasons: Either for purely social purposes To get something accomplished.
Successful group problem solving depends first on -

Good communication among the members.

By communication we mean the sharing of information by everyone. Silence does not mean approval. In fact, we do not know what silence means until it is broken. We do know that each person has a contribution to make.

Techniques for Managing Group Dynamics

Many techniques to assist the facilitator in managing the agenda and group dynamics Equalizing Participation Listing Stacking Pacing Checking the Process Silence Taking a Break Call for Consensus Summarizing Reformulating the Proposal Stepping Out of Role Passing the Clipboard Polling (Straw Polls) Censoring Expulsion

Team Development And Performance

A team is a small number of employees
with complementary competencies who are committed to common performance goals & working relationships for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.

TEAM is a group that has a job to do, whether as paid participants or as volunteers. A team encompasses the word group unless we specially use group for a particular reason.

Team Building
Team building refers to a wide range of activities, presented to businesses, schools, sports teams, religious or nonprofit organizations designed for improving team performance.

Team Building
An ideal team has a number of distinct characteristics, and they fall into Three areas:

their feedback and communication behaviours, their behaviour and conduct courtesies, and their ways of approaching tasks and problems.

Feedback and communication behaviours describe how the members talk with one another, clarify their expectations, react to each others ideas and offer their perceptions and opinions.

Effective Group : Conditions

Its members know why the group exists & shared the goals
Support agreed upon guidelines & procedures for decision Communicate freely with other members Manage the conflict within the group Improve the performance of the team on self diagnosis.

A group that achieves cohesiveness; A teams strength is found in the A group with a common relationships among the team objective, whose members are members A group whose members are very clear about working toward inter dependent. one purpose. Whereas other groups may recognize the strengths of each member, team members rely on the strengths of each member to accomplish the objective.

Team Empowerment
Refers to the - degree to which its members perceive the group. Empowerment is an essential ingredient of a successful crossfunctional team. And its importance extends to just about every type and manner of team .

Key Dimensions of Team Empowerment

Potency Meaningfulness Autonomy Impact
Capable of being effective Performing important and valuable tasks Having independence & discretion in performing the work. Experiencing a sense of importance & significance in the work performance & goals achieved

Teams Vs Individuals
What we know from research & practice

Social facilitation Learning Judgment Risky Decisions Problem Solving

People are more motivated to perform better with others, especially on motor tasks, when comfortable, well-trained, & good work habits

Time Efficiency
Idea Production

Teams usually take more time to complete a task

Team Development
Teams & groups are living organisms with certain predictable stages of development. One characterization of the progression of team development can be depicted by a series of steps on a graph. One axis represents success with tasks that are more & more complicated, and the other represents the amount of time & effort that the group has invested in becoming a team.

Building and Managing Successful Virtual Teams

Tuckman Model
Tuckmans Five-Stage Theory of Group Development


Adjourning Return to Independence Dependence/ interdependence

Independence Transforming occurs when

the team is at such an effective level of functioning that it can redefine its shared purpose and respond quickly to change.
The leadership within the team is shared, trust is high, and communication is open. The point of knowing about the stages of a team is two-fold: 1. it can be helpful simply to know that there are stages, and that it is normal to go through these stages; 2. one can identify the stage of development for a given group or team, and can assist the progress through that stage by managing the interactions or dynamics between & among the members.

McGraw-Hill 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.





Individual How do I Issues fit in?

Group Issues Why are we here?

Whats my role here?

What do the others expect me to do?

Can we agree on roles and work as a team?

How can I best perform my role?

Can we do the job properly?

Why are we fighting over whos in charge and who does what?

Stage 1
Assessing resources & setting direction

Stage 2
Positioning, influence, conflict, complementarity

Stage 3

Stage 4

Identity, cohesion, monitor norms

Maintain high performance

Factors Influencing Team/Group Effectiveness

Contexts Goals Team Size Team Members Role Norms


Team Building & Role of Members

It Influences
Team Behaviour Dynamics Outcomes

Three Types Of Role

Task Oriented Relation Oriented Self Oriented
Involves facilitating and coordinating work related decision.

Relation Oriented Role Initiates ideas new Team Centred Feeling.

Seeking information Social Interactions Giving infromation Encouraging Members Clarifying relationshipConflicts Harmonizing Evaluating team effectiveness. Participation

Expressing Standards.

Achieving Group Consensus

Arriving at a decision can be a difficult process for a group. Many groups resort to voting to decide issues. It is useful to work to achieve consensus. Consensus differs from voting in that it is more a process of achieving maximum agreement. Like problem solving, consensus requires that everyone share whatever information, opinions, facts, or feelings they may have.
The value of whole group discussion is the evolution of a group idea. A group idea is not simply the sum of individual ideas, but the result of the interaction of ideas during discussion.
Evidence Based Research Shows ?

Teams in the workplace

In 1980 an estimated 250 worksites used teams; by 1988 it had increased to 67% and by 1990 to 83%. Nearly all workplaces have introduced teams to some degree at this time 80% of Fortune 500 companies have half their employees working More can be accomplished in teams with groups than can be achieved by individuals alone, 56% of large companies with over 5,000 employees use virtual teams lowered costs increased output Industry Week reports that 68% of small companies use teams, improved productivity with over 25% having 25-99% of employees in teams reduced cycle (processing time) .. OVERALL-- In a study of SDWTs in 7 countries: 93% increased productivity, 86% lowered operating costs, 86% enhanced quality, 70% improved employee attitudes but to be productive a group must remain focused and healthy.

Knowledge Networks Collaboration

Collaboration between Brazil, Russia, India and China and the G7 20042008.

Countries achieving threefold increase through collaborative initiatives

Royal Society Science Policy Centre Report ,


Royal Society Science Policy Centre Report , 2011


Source: WoS database

Why do teams fail?

Lack of skills on task or as team members Missing basic talents: abstract thinking, social intelligence, emotional resilience, work attitude Lack of energy due to low meaningfulness, respect, or trust Lack of clear focus: mission, vision, values, strategy, tactical goals Unclear, inconsistent, conflicting, or overloaded roles Uncertain measures of performance for team & individual Lack of timely feedback with accountability & coaching

When Team Members Give Up

In a study of 569 managers, they reported that they limited their efforts or input in over 56% of the teams in which they participated. The major causes for giving up were cited as: I wasn't I didn't have needed Presence of someone with expertise (73%) other I wasn't Presentation of compelling argument (62%) information prepared or Lack of confidence in ability to contribute (61%) for there an were whyargument waste other "high Unimportant or meaningless decision (52%) mypower"people groupthink Pressures to conform to team decision (46%) time? you want . at its Dysfunctional decision making climate (39%) me to best! risk what?!

3S -Team Reflection
STAY: What did we do that worked well for us and we should continue? STOP: What did we do that got in our way and we should discontinue? START: What didnt we do that would make us more effective and we should start?

Team Processing (reflecting on interactions and processes)



Possible interpretation & implications

Emergence of leader Potential imbalance of introvert and extravert Risk of dominance or development of passive norms High task orientation Possible underdevelopment and utilization of members skills


Communication (for example)

One person spoke more than others Members directed most communication to most frequent talker Topic change was initiated by primary talker Primary talker initiated moving to decision

Encourage leader to be gatekeeper Distribute leadership to others Leader attend late and empower others to begin work Discuss interaction and implications of styles

So add other categories of what to observe and one can continue elaborating on the chart

The Learning Organization: Reflective learning on all three levels: Individual, team, organization