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Adenosine TriPhosphate

Structure of ATP

Formation of ATP
ATP is formed when a phosphate group is added to ADP (Adenosine DiPhosphate). The addition of a phosphate group is called phosphorylation. There are several types of phosphorylation; photophosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation and substrate level phosphorylation.

ATP as the universal energy currency

Energy is needed for metabolic processes and respiration does not occur at every point that energy is needed. Consequently, the need arises for a currency that can provide energy when it is needed just like how money provides the power to obtain anything when needed whether a bank or mint is nearby.

ATP as the universal energy currency contd

ATP is a small soluble molecule that can move easily throughout a cell. It is also easily hydrolysed to release energy. Hydrolysis of the bond with the third Phosphate group releases approximately 30.6kJ of energy. This energy can be used for metabolic processes. es_Web_Ch06.html

Uses of ATP
Anabolic processes It provides the energy needed to build macromolecules.

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Uses of ATP contd

Movement it provides energy for muscle contraction, ciliary action, and spindle action in cell division.

Uses of ATP contd

Active transport movement against a concentration gradient requires energy.

Uses of ATP contd

Secretions needed in the formation of vesicles for the secretion of cell products.

Uses of ATP contd

Activation of chemicals phosphorylation makes chemicals more reactive.