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Bioenergetics

Adenosine TriPhosphate

Structure of ATP

http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/@api/deki/files/14433/=ATP.jpg

Formation of ATP
ATP is formed when a phosphate group is added to ADP (Adenosine DiPhosphate). The addition of a phosphate group is called phosphorylation. There are several types of phosphorylation; photophosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation and substrate level phosphorylation.

ATP as the universal energy currency


Energy is needed for metabolic processes and respiration does not occur at every point that energy is needed. Consequently, the need arises for a currency that can provide energy when it is needed just like how money provides the power to obtain anything when needed whether a bank or mint is nearby.

http://breatheornot.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/atp-mit-cell2.gif

ATP as the universal energy currency contd


ATP is a small soluble molecule that can move easily throughout a cell. It is also easily hydrolysed to release energy. Hydrolysis of the bond with the third Phosphate group releases approximately 30.6kJ of energy. This energy can be used for metabolic processes.

http://www.southtexascollege.edu/nilsson/4_GB1_LearnRes_fa10_f/4_GB1_LearnR es_Web_Ch06.html

Uses of ATP
Anabolic processes It provides the energy needed to build macromolecules.

http://biocadmin.otago.ac.nz/fmi/xsl/bioc2/learnbitslecture.xsl?db=BIOC2web.fp7&-lay=Lectures&-recid=5157&-find

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http://general.utpb.edu/FAC/eldridge_j/Kine6360/Unit%202%20html%20file/Conte nt%20Display%20%20Unit%202%20-%20Energy%20Metabolism.htm

Uses of ATP contd


Movement it provides energy for muscle contraction, ciliary action, and spindle action in cell division.
http://www.easyvigour.net.nz/trigger_points/h_triggerpoint4.htm

http://tinyurl.com/lw7knz7

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_division

Uses of ATP contd


Active transport movement against a concentration gradient requires energy.

http://click4biology.info/c4b/2/cell2.4.htm

Uses of ATP contd


Secretions needed in the formation of vesicles for the secretion of cell products.

http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/art-144468/The-endoplasmic-reticulum-playsa-major-role-in-the-biosynthesis

Uses of ATP contd


Activation of chemicals phosphorylation makes chemicals more reactive.
http://www.sparknotes.com/biology/cellrespiration/glycolysis/section1.rhtml