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Organizational Behavior

ATTITUDES & VALUES


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Defining Attitudes
Attitude is a hypothetical construct Cannot be directly observed inferred from what people say and do Attitude objects are concrete, abstract, about people, groups of people and inanimate objects Behaviour towards objects is dependent upon attitude towards objects Attitudes tend to persist unless something is done to change them Attitudes can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favourable to very unfavourable. Attitudes are directed towards some object about which a person has feelings or affect and beliefs
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Organizational Behavior

HOW MUCH DO YOU SEE OF AN ICEBERG?

Organizational Behavior

ONLY 10% OF ANY ICEBERG IS VISIBLE. THE REMAINING 90% IS BELOW SEA LEVEL.

Organizational Behavior

KNOWN TO OTHERS

BEHAVIOR

SEA LEVEL

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UNKNOWN TO OTHERS

VALUES STANDARDS JUDGMENTS

ATTITUDE
MOTIVES ETHICS - BELIEFS
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Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Three components of an attitude:

Affective Cognitive

The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude

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The opinion or belief segment of an attitude

Behavioral

An intention to behave in a certain way toward 6 someone or something

Attitude

Festingers Cognitive Dissonance


Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes Peoples attitudes or beliefs can be consonant (in line), dissonant (at odds), or not related to each other If dissonant, we experience psychological discomfort Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, or dissonance, to reach stability and consistency Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes, modifying the behaviors, or through rationalization Desire to reduce dissonance depends on:

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Importance of elements
Degree of individual influence Rewards involved in dissonance
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WHAT ARE THE MAJOR JOB ATTITUDES?


Job Satisfaction A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics Job Involvement Degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to self-worth Psychological Empowerment Belief in the degree of influence over the job, competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy

ANOTHER MAJOR JOB ATTITUDE

Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, while wishing to maintain membership in the organization. Three dimensions:

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Affective emotional attachment to organization Continuance Commitment economic value of staying Normative - moral or ethical obligations

Has some relation to performance, especially for new employees. Less important now than in past now perhaps more of occupational commitment, loyalty to profession rather than a given employer.

OUTCOMES OF JOB SATISFACTION

Job Performance Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied!
Organizational Behavior

The causality may run both ways. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions of fairness. Customer Satisfaction Satisfied frontline employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. Absenteeism Satisfied employees are moderately less likely to miss work.

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VALUES
Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or endstate of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. Attributes of Values: Content Attribute that the mode of conduct or end-state is important Intensity Attribute just how important that content is. Value System A persons values rank ordered by intensity Tends to be relatively constant and consistent
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Organizational Behavior

SOURCES OF VALUES
Genetics. Other factors # Personal Factors :-perception , attitude, etc. # Social Factors:- society. #Cultural Factors. #Family Factors. #Teachers. #Friends. #Religion. # Life experiences. #Role Demand. # Environmental Factors.

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Organizational Behavior

IMPORTANCE OF VALUES
Provide

understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors our perception of the world around us interpretations of right and

Organizational Behavior

Influence

Represent

wrong
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CLASSIFYING VALUES ROKEACH VALUE SURVEY

Terminal Values Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime Instrumental Values Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving ones terminal values

People in same occupations or categories tend to hold similar values But values vary between groups Value differences make it difficult for groups to negotiate and may create conflict 14

Organizational Behavior

VALUES IN THE ROKEACH SURVEY

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Organizational Behavior