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Introduction to the Course Different security concepts Origins of the Cold War Alliance System Security Provisions in the Early Post-World War II Period
to expose students to the history of European security provisions beginning with the early post-1945 period, including discussion of the Cold War to familiarize students with the significant changes the international system experienced in the early 1990s with the end of the Cold War and the new dynamics in global security to explore political, institutional and legal developments that shape post-Cold War Europe, focusing in depth on the role of the European Union (EU) to examine contemporary security issues confronting European states and to speculate about future cooperative developments in Europe.
Course Objectives By the end of the course, students will be:
Equipped with systematic knowledge about European security issues in the context of global politics from 1945 up to the present Able to comprehend, identify and assess security problems and challenges at regional and international levels
Assessment Group Presentation – Country Assessment (20%) – to take place during weekly tutorials. Times for each group to be scheduled with the instructor Mid term exam - Week 7 (30%) Final exam – Week 12 (50%) Students are reminded that a minimum attendance of 80% at both lectures and tutorials is required to sit the final exam.
Source: http://www.philate licdatabase.com/ma ps/europe-mapafter-1945/
Source: http://www.worldatlasb ook.com/images/maps/e urope-map-politicalcountries.jpg [Accessed 19th August 2013]
The notion of what we mean by security is a contested one; traditionally it has focused on the security of states. More recently a broader notion of human security has become more commonly used, focusing more on the human consequences of war, insecurity and peace Questions of war and peace have preoccupied philosophers, historians and social scientists for millennia. Many of the theories and writings on this subject that are well known originate in or are based on Europe‟s historical experiences In recent times such questions have been addressed in political science with the fields on international relations and comparative politics. The sections which follow will provide an overview of theories current in international relations. We will review and consider additional contributions from comparative politics later in the semester.
Theories of International Relations
Many theorists of IR take the Peace of Westphalia (1648) as the starting point of the modern state system, arguing that the principle of state sovereignty was established in Europe at this time Under standard approaches to IR, states are taken as the building blocks of the international system IR takes as its starting point that states exist in a condition of anarchy and examine the consequences for states of such anarchy The focus of IR theory is therefore predominantly (although not exclusively) on inter-state conflict (conflict between states) rather than intra-state conflict (conflict within states)
Background: The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
Ended the 30 years war (1618-1648) that embroiled European states The war was European in scope but fought primarily in Central Europe. It focused on the fate of Germany and adjacent territory The origins of the conflict were related to religious competition and divisions between Catholic and Protestant rulers The treaty reaffirmed the principle of cujus regio ejus regio (which to paraphrase from Latin means that the ruler decides the religion of his or her subjects); After the war Germany was divided into a weak federation of some 350 states;
However, The Peace of Westphalia also provided for non-violent processes for adjudicating religious disputes, revitalized the German Holy Roman Empire (a multinational / transnational political construct) and made France and Sweden as guarantors of its provisions So the treaty of Westphalia is not as clear a demarcation of state sovereignty as is often presented. State sovereignty, if affirmed by Westphalia, was also bound to extra state institutions and relations between states. For further reading see Osiander (2001)
There are a number of different IR schools of thought
Realism – that human nature or the nature of the system defines the behavior of states. Often divided into classical realism and neo-realism Liberalism - that domestic state / society relations define state ends and as such state behavior Constructivism - that states can define the nature of their interactions – the realist zero sum game is not inevitable. Institutionalism – tends to examine and debate the role of international institutions in international relations
Characteristics of Classical Realism
Reductive view of power Rejection of harmony of interests Dark view of human nature Risk Averse
Reductive view of power
The Greek general and historian, Thucydides, for example, writing his History of the Peloponnesian War (5th century B.C.) , quotes one of the parties, the Athenians, as saying (in the Melian dialogues): “while the strong do what they have the power to do and the weak accept what they have to accept”
British diplomat EH Carr (1892-1982), writing about the period between the World Wars, wrote: “We must therefore reject as inadequate and misleading the attempt to base international morality on an alleged harmony of interests which identifies the interest of the whole community of nations with the interest of each individual member of it” (Carr, 2001)
Rejection of harmony on interests
Dark View of Human Nature
The English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) wrote that „The life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short‟. In the absence of an overarching government, man lives in a state of nature. Hobbes assumes (often violent) competition, conflict driven by fear and conflict driven by desire for glory; not all people are driven by these impulses but some are and will use violence to attain their ends - See Williams (2005) for further discussion Hans Morgenthau (1904-1980): Only through working with the forces of human nature, rather than against them, by ever balancing interests, that moral principles can be realized – See Morgenthau (1978) for further discussion.
The Italian political philosopher, Niccolò Machiavelli (1469- 1527), exemplifies this approach; see, for example, this quote in his famous book entitled The Prince: “It is better to be feared than loved” (See Nederman, 2009 for more details on this theorist) Hans Morgenthau - realism „aims at the realization of the lesser evil rather than of the absolute good‟
Outcome: the self fulfilling prophesy of realism:
Worst case scenario assumption about state intentions leads states to adopt realist positions In such circumstances International Relations are dominated by so-called Great Powers. Smaller states are essentially pawns in “the great game” played between these larger states
Some classical realists recognize the importance of morality in international relations (Carr, Morgenthau) Most realists define what constitutes international relations quite narrowly: for example,
Morgenthau defines international relations as those activities
normally undertaken where power is considered Carr defines politics defined as power politics, with international co-operation divided into the „political‟ and „nonpolitical‟
Neorealist theories of international relations, developed since WWII, differ from classical realism because the focus of theory is on the implications of anarchy, rather than on human nature. Neorealism offers a more systematic approach that is concerned with relative power. The neorealist system is defined by the most powerful states in the system
Kenneth Waltz (1923-2013) is the father of neorealist theory, as set out in his now classic book, The Theory of International Politics
Waltz discusses “continuities” in international relations with a balance of power as the ultimate outcome Forces are shaped by the very existence of other states as well as interactions between them and will persist as long as none of the competing units can convert the anarchic international system into a hierarchic one socialization and competition are the two invisible hands of the international system that lead to a persistence in outcomes State capabilities in the balance of power system are vital, with the number of strong states defining the nature of the international system States follow a self help approach to ensure state survival
Alliance formation in the realist system
Stephan Walt (1955 - ):
Balancing or band-wagoning behavior likely from small
states in response to the system of balance of power; Not just a question of power: states will ally with or against the most threatening power. As a result aggregate power, proximity, offensive capability and offensive intentions all play a role in deciding state behavior See Walt (1985) for further details
Liberalism includes a more diffuse set of theories that highlight the importance of domestic factors in influencing the foreign policies of states and by extension the nature of international relations. The most important contribution of this literature is the idea of the Democratic Peace First laid out by Emmanuel Kant (1724-1804) in a piece written in 1795 entitled “Perpetual Peace” – for Kant perpetual peace could be guaranteed if a number of conditions were met; included amongst them was the First Definitive Article for Perpetual Peace – that the civil constitution of every state should be republican The modern version of the democratic peace theory argues (based on empirical evidence) that democracies are unlikely to go to war with each other.
Constructivism considers how states and the international system are constructed and meaning and understandings on the nature of the international system are maintained Key text is Alexander Wendt‟s (1958- ) “Social Theory of International Politics” – Wendt argues that anarchy is what states make of it. Anarchy is not a given, but the product of certain kinds of relations between states and is not inevitable.
There are many different varieties of institutionalism within the social sciences. However in international relations institutionalism focuses on inter-governmental organizations and how / why they work US theorist Robert Keohane (1941 - ) wrote a seminal piece in 1984 entitled “After Hegemony, Co-operation and Discord in the World Political Economy” that argued that international institutions reduce transaction costs between states and reduce uncertainly by allowing more efficient sharing of information
WWII fought in Europe from 1939 – 1945 It pitched Allied versus Axis powers In Europe, the primary Allied powers included Great Britain, the USSR (from June 1941 onwards) and the USA (from December 1941 onwards). Other countries included many attacked and occupied during the war including France, Norway, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, Italy (after 1943), Greece, Poland, as well as British Commonwealth countries such as Canada and Australia and other countries The primary Axis powers in Europe were Germany, Italy (from 1940 until 1943), but were also allied to Japan, who fought in Asia. Other Axis countries included Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Croatia and Finland
The split within the Allied camp reflected both ideological differences and security concerns between the socialist USSR and capitalist western powers Both sides remained suspicious of the other; Russian and Soviet history included precedents of foreign interference; Stalin was determined to prevent another future invasion though the creation of a buffer zone in eastern Europe France and the UK, the traditional Great Powers of Europe (along with Germany) were severely weakened. Only the US had the ability to credibly defend Western Europe.
Key outcomes of WWII included:
A divided Germany Forced population movements, particularly of ethnic Germans from eastern Europe together with the loss of millions through conflict, mass killings and genocide Soviet dominance of eastern Europe (agreed at the Yalta conference in 1945 before the end of the war) US assistance for the reconstruction of Western European states and a continued commitment to the defense of these states (Temporary) US dominance with respect to atomic weapons because of their sole possession of nuclear weapons until the Soviets acquired same in August 1949
Source: http://www.awesomestories.com/assets/map-depicting-how-germany-was-divided [Accessed 19th August 2013]
Initially divided into four zones, each administered by one of the four major allied powers – US, USSR, UK and France 1946 - moves by the US and UK to re-establish industrial production and economic development in their zones; end of 1946 bizone of US and UK created; later joined by the French
Economic devastation, widespread societal breakdown , occupation by Allied forces The Nazi led genocide (termed the Holocaust or Shoah in Hebrew) led to the killing of 11 million people, including approx. 6 million European Jews (two thirds of Europe‟s Jewish population). More generally even greater military and civilian losses because of the war At the end of the war, approx. 13m ethnic German previously living in eastern Europe were either expelled or fled and were resettled into West Germany Polish borders were redrawn
Yalta (Feb 1945) and Potsdam (July 1945) conferences held close to and immediately after the end of WWII between the USSR, USA and the UK confirmed a Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe Soviet control was consolidated in the following years (Yugoslavia excepted, which was aligned with Moscow but had some independence of action)
Key events in consolidating Soviet control in the immediate post war period included:
Lublin government installed in Poland Communist regimes installed in Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary by 1947 after ouster of initial coalition governments Cominform established by the Soviets in Sept 1947 to revive institutional links among European communist parties and tighten control over party activities Soviet backed coup in Czechoslovakia in 1948 toppled a democratically elected government there Yugoslavia retained some autonomy as communist partisans under Tito liberated the country without assistance from the Red Army
"From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has
descended across the Continent.“ – Winston Churchill, March 1946. For full text of this speech, see
In the light of the above, it will be clearly seen that the Soviet pressure against the free institutions of the western world is something that can be contained by the adroit and vigilant application of counter-force at a series of constantly shifting geographical and political points, corresponding to the shifts and maneuvers of Soviet policy, but which cannot be charmed or talked out of existence – US Diplomat George Kennan, writing under the pseudonym X in magazine Foreign Affairs, 1947. See http://www.historyguide.org/europe/kennan.html for the full text of his speech.
The Truman Doctrine (March 1947)
In response to a civil war in Greece: “America would aid free peoples to resist threats by armed minorities or by outside pressure. America would also help such free peoples maintain their national integrity against totalitarian regimes” – for the full text of President Truman‟s speech, see
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/trudoc.asp; for further discussion, see
Marshall Aid (European Recovery Program)
Program initiated by the US in 1947. Lasted until 1952. Offered to all European countries but refused by eastern bloc. Main beneficiaries include UK, France, Italy, Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Scandanavian countries, Austria, Portugal, Greece, Turkey, Ireland etc. See http://www.marshallfoundation.org for more information, including a recording of the speech itself.
The US was the sole atomic power from the end of the war until August 1949 US possession of this weapon was not a surprise to the USSR Despite the existence of this weapon, the military balance of power was less clear-cut during these years Neither side wanted out right conflict, but USSR was not intimidated by atomic power (See Week 2 reading, Geddis, Chapter 4)
The United Nations established in San Francisco in 1945. The UN included a security council with the USA, the USSR, the UK, France and China as permanent members with vetoes. The US also sponsored the establishment of other bodies designed to support recovery including the Bretton Woods institutions – the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank (agreed 1944, established 1945) – see http://history.state.gov/milestones/19371945/BrettonWoods for further details Brussels Pact, April 1948 signed between the UK, France, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg for collective self defense NATO subsequently established in 1949
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