This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Network Fundamentals – Chapter 7 Modified by Tony Chen
ITE I Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public
If you see any mistake on my PowerPoint slides or if you have any questions about the materials, please feel free to email me at email@example.com. Thanks!
Tony Chen College of DuPage Cisco Networking Academy
ITE 1 Chapter 6
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
– – – – – Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to: Explain the role of Data Link layer protocols in data transmission. Describe how the Data Link layer prepares data for transmission on network media. Describe the different types of media access control methods. Identify several common logical network topologies and describe how the logical topology determines the media access control method for that network. Explain the purpose of encapsulating packets into frames to facilitate media access. Describe the Layer 2 frame structure and identify generic fields. Explain the role of key frame header and trailer fields, including addressing, QoS, type of protocol, and Frame Check Sequence.
ITE 1 Chapter 6
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Connecting to Upper Layer Services
The Data Link layer provides a means for exchanging data over a common local media. The Data Link layer performs two basic services:
–Allows the upper layers to access the media using techniques such as framing –Controls how data is placed onto the media and is received from the media using techniques such as media access control and error detection
The Data Link layer is responsible for the exchange of frames between nodes over the media of a physical network:
–Frame - The Data Link layer PDU –Node - The Layer 2 notation for network devices connected to a common medium –Media/medium (physical) - The physical means for the transfer of information between two nodes –Network (physical) - Two or more nodes connected to a common medium
ITE 1 Chapter 6
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
accepts frames from a medium. –Although the two hosts may be communicating with their peer Network layer protocols (IP for example) –In this example. •it will be encapsulated into Ethernet frame. •For the final link. Imagine a data conversation between two hosts. and then forwards the packet in a new frame appropriate to the medium of that segment. decapsulates the frame. All rights reserved. the packet will use a wireless data link frame from the router to the laptop. Inc. an intermediary device .and then encapsulated into a new data link frame to cross the satellite link. Cisco Public 5 . in this case IPv4.such as router . ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. –As packet is received and directed to upper layer protocol. such as a PC in Paris with an Internet server in Japan. as IP packet travels from PC to laptop.Connecting to Upper Layer Services The Data Link layer provides services to support the communication processes for each medium over which data is to be transmitted. that does not need to be aware of which media the communication will use. –At each hop along the path. •decapsulated.
For example. –The NIC manages the framing and media access control. Inc. –Different physical interfaces on the router are used to encapsulate the packet into the appropriate frame. it uses Data Link layer to receive the frame from medium. Cisco Public 6 . –As the router processes frames. All rights reserved. re-encapsulate the PDU into a new frame. and place the frame on the medium of the next link of the network. At intermediary devices such as a router. –The technique used for getting the frame on and off media is called the media access control method. –The router has an Ethernet interface to connect to the LAN and a serial interface to connect to the WAN. –For the data to be transferred across a number of different media. the device (such as PC or laptop) would use the appropriate NIC to connect to the LAN media. decapsulate it to the Layer 3 PDU. different media access control methods may be required during the course of a single communication.Controlling Transfer across Local Media Layer 2 protocols specify the encapsulation of a packet into a frame and the techniques for getting the encapsulated packet on and off each medium. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems.
Cisco Public 7 .Contains control information. All rights reserved.Contains control information added to the end of the PDU ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. such as addressing.Creating a Frame Data Link layer protocols require control information to enable the protocols to function: –Which nodes are in communication with each other –When communication between individual nodes begins and when it ends –Which errors occurred while the nodes communicated –Which nodes will communicate next The Data Link layer prepares a packet for transport across the local media by encapsulating it with a header and a trailer to create a frame. and is located at the beginning of the PDU –Data . Inc.The packet from the Network layer –Trailer . –Header .
If a node is receiving long streams of bits.The type of PDU contained in the frame –Quality control fields –A data field -The frame payload (Network layer packet) –Fields at the end of the frame form the trailer. These fields are used for error detection and mark the end of the frame.The beginning and end limits of the frame –Naming or addressing fields –Type field . Cisco Public 8 . it is converted into a stream of bits. The standards for a specific Data Link protocol define the actual frame format. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. how does it determine where a frame starts and stops or which bits represent the address? Typical field types include: –Start and stop indicator fields . All rights reserved.Creating a Frame When data travels on the media. Not all protocols include all of these fields. –Examples of frame formats will be discussed at the end of this chapter. or 1s and 0s.
Inc. All rights reserved. such as an Ethernet NIC –The NIC is not solely a physical entity. be it copper. the Data Link layer is embodied as a physical entity. •Software associated with the NIC enables the NIC to perform its intermediary functions of preparing data for transmission and encoding the data as signals to be sent on the associated media. Cisco Public 9 .Connecting Upper Layer Services to the Media The Data Link layer exists as a connecting layer between the software processes of the layers above it and the Physical layer below it. –It prepares the Network layer packets for transmission across some form of media. fiber. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. In many cases. or the atmosphere.
•This information allows multiple Layer 3 protocols. All rights reserved. –Logical Link Control (The upper sublayer) •defines the software processes that provide services to the Network layer protocols. to utilize the same network interface and media. Cisco Public 10 . ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. •Media Access Control (MAC) provides Data Link layer addressing and delimiting of data according to the physical signaling requirements of the medium and the type of Data Link layer protocol in use. –Media Access Control (The lower sublayer) •defines the media access processes performed by the hardware. The Data Link layer is often divided into two sublayers. •Logical Link Control (LLC) places information in the frame that identifies which Network layer protocol is being used for the frame. such as IP and IPX.Data Link Sublayers Separating the Data Link layer into sublayers allows for one type of frame defined by the upper layer to access different types of media defined by the lower layer.
and ITU) and communications companies. –Engineering organizations set public and open standards and protocols. Inc. ANSI. Data Link layer protocols are generally not defined by Request for Comments (RFCs). which are implemented mostly in software such as the host operating system or specific applications. –Unlike the upper layer protocols. –The protocols at this layer are implemented within the electronics of the NIC with which the device connects to the physical network. Engineering organizations that define open standards and protocols that apply to the Data Link layer include: –International Organization for Standardization (ISO) –Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) –American National Standards Institute (ANSI) –International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Data Link layer processes occur both in software and hardware. All rights reserved. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems.Standards The functional protocols and services at the Data Link layer are described by engineering organizations (such as IEEE. –Unlike TCP/IP suite. Cisco Public 11 .
–These media access control techniques define if and how the nodes share the media.Placing Data on the Media Regulating the placement of data frames onto the media is known as “media access control”. . or by obeying signal lights. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12 . by waiting for its turn at a stop sign. •For example: Traffic can enter the road by merging. The method of media access control used depends: –Media sharing •If and how the nodes share the media –Shared or non-shared –Topology •How the connection between the nodes appears to the Data Link layer –Point-to-point –Multi-access –Ring ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. A driver follows a different set of rules for each type of entrance.
•Although controlled access is well-ordered. •This method is also known as scheduled access or deterministic. Inc. deterministic methods can be inefficient because a device has to wait for its turn before it can use the medium. Contention-based . network devices take turns. Cisco Public 13 . Controlled . All rights reserved.All nodes compete for the use of the medium ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. •For example: Token Ring 2. to access the medium. in sequence.Each node has its own time to use the medium •When using the controlled access method.Media Access Control for Shared Media There are 2 media access control methods for shared media: 1.
All nodes compete for the use of the medium •Also referred to as non-deterministic methods •It allow any device to try to access the medium whenever it has data to send. –Traditional forms of Ethernet use this method. Cisco Public •Note: CSMA/CD will be covered in more detail in Chapter 9. If the media is free. –the device examines the media for the presence of a data signal. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. the device transmits the data. If a data signal is absent. –The device monitors the media for the presence of a data signal. 14 . •CSMA/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA). All rights reserved. –This method is used by 802. •Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD).11 wireless networking. Contention-based .Media Access Control for Shared Media There are 2 media access control methods for shared media: 2. Inc. •Contention-based media access control methods do not have the overhead of controlled access methods. the device sends a notification across the media of its intent to use it. indicating that the media is free. –If signals are then detected that show another device was transmitting at the same time. all devices stop sending and try again later.
the media interconnects just two nodes. Inc. –In point-to-point topologies.Media Access Control for Non-Shared Media Media access control protocols for non-shared media require little before placing frames onto the media. Cisco Public 15 . –In full-duplex communication. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. –Such is the case for point-to-point topologies. Full Duplex and Half Duplex –Half-duplex communication •Means that the devices can both transmit and receive on the media but cannot do so simultaneously. All rights reserved. Data Link layer protocols have little to do for controlling non-shared media access. –Therefore. •Both devices can transmit and receive on the media at the same time.
–The physical topology is an arrangement of the nodes and the physical connections between them. •It is the logical topology that influences the type of network framing and media access control used.Logical Topology vs Physical Topology The topology of a network is the arrangement or relationship of the network devices and the interconnections between them. Inc. •This arrangement consists of virtual connections between the nodes of a network independent of their physical layout. Cisco Public 16 . •The representation of how the media is used to interconnect the devices is the physical topology. All rights reserved. •These logical signal paths are defined by Data Link layer protocols. Logical topologies Logical and physical topologies typically used in networks are: –Point-to-Point –Multi-Access –Ring ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Physical topologies –A logical topology is the way a network transfers frames from one node to the next.
Inc. –The frames are placed on the media by the node at one end and taken off the media by the node at the other end of the point-to-point circuit. –If data can successfully flow across the link from each node simultaneously. In point-to-point networks. Cisco Public 17 . –All frames on the media can only travel to or from the two nodes. it is operating as a half-duplex link. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. it is a fullduplex link. as shown in the figure. –if data can only flow in one direction at a time.Logical Point-to-Point Topology A point-to-point topology connects two nodes directly together.
the source and destination node may be indirectly connected to each other over some geographical distance. •Virtual circuits are important logical communication constructs used by some Layer 2 technologies.Logical Point-to-Point Networks The end nodes communicating in a point-topoint network can be physically connected via a number of intermediate devices. •This occurs even if the frames are directed through intermediary devices. •As shown in the figure. –In some cases. •A virtual circuit is a logical connection created within a network between two network devices. Inc. 18 ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public . the logical connection between nodes forms what is called a virtual circuit. All rights reserved. –However the use of physical devices in the network does not affect the logical topology. •The two nodes on either end of the virtual circuit exchange the frames with each other.
–Every node sees all the frames that are on the medium. All rights reserved. –Data from only one node can be placed on the medium at any one time. Inc. –The media access control methods used by logical multi-access topologies are typically CSMA/CD or CSMA/CA. but only the node to which the frame is addressed processes the contents of the frame. Having many nodes share access to the medium requires a Data Link media access control method to regulate the transmission of data and thereby reduce collisions between different signals. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 19 .Logical Multi-Access Topology A logical multi-access topology enables a number of nodes to communicate by using the same shared media.
all nodes around the ring. the node passes the frame to the next node. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems.Logical Ring Topology In a logical ring topology. If the frame is not addressed to the node.between the source and destination node examine the frame. –If there is no data being transmitted. each node in turn receives a frame. Cisco Public 20 . –Nodes in a logical ring topology remove the frame from the ring. Inc. and send it on if it is not addressed for that node. –In a ring. examine the address. –This allows a ring to use a controlled media access control technique called token passing. All rights reserved. a signal (known as a token) may be placed on the media and a node can only place a data frame on the media when it has the token.
Cisco Public 21 . the amount of control information needed in the frame varies to match the media access control requirements of the media and logical topology. the structure of the frame and the fields contained in the header and trailer vary according to the protocol. •Depending on the environment.The Frames Although there are many different Data Link layer protocols. However. There is no one frame structure that meets the needs of all data transportation across all types of media –The Data Link layer protocol describes the features required for the transport of packets across different media. Inc. each frame type has 3 basic parts: –Header –Data –Trailer All Data Link layer protocols encapsulate the Layer 3 PDU within the data field of the frame. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.
Typical frame header fields include: –Start Frame field . Cisco Public 22 .Used to establish the media link –Flow control field . –Because the purposes and functions of Data Link layer protocols are related to the specific topologies and media.Indicates congestion in the media Different Data Link layer protocols may use different fields from those mentioned. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems.Indicates the source and destination nodes on the media –Priority/Quality of Service field .Used to start and stop traffic over the media –Congestion control field .Indicates a particular type of communication service for processing –Type field .Framing – Role of the Header Frame information is unique to each type of protocol. Inc. each protocol has to be examined to gain a detailed understanding of its frame structure.Indicates the upper layer service contained in the frame –Logical connection control field .Used to establish a logical connection between nodes –Physical link control field .Indicates the beginning of the frame –Source and Destination address fields . All rights reserved.
the node examines the destination address in the header to determine if it is the destination of the frame. the frame has only one place it can go. •Once on the medium. Inc. do not require addressing. –Point-to-point topologies •With just two interconnected nodes. Cisco Public 23 . •When a frame reaches each node in the topology. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. –Ring and multi-access topologies • They can connect many nodes on a common medium. addressing is required for these typologies. All rights reserved.Addressing – Where the frame goes Addressing Requirements The need for Data Link layer addressing at this layer depends on the logical topology.
Inc. it will still function with the same Layer 2 physical address. –[Tony: MAC address is only local significant] If the packet in the frame must pass onto another network segment. Cisco Public 24 .a router . the intermediate device . Because the frame is only used to transport data between nodes across the local media. and send it onto the new segment. All rights reserved. –Device addresses at this layer are referred to as physical addresses. physical addresses do not indicate on what network the device is located.will decapsulate the original frame. create a new frame for the packet. –If the device is moved to another network or subnet. –Unlike Layer 3 logical addresses that are hierarchical. the Data Link layer address is only used for local delivery.Addressing – Where the frame goes The data Link layer provides addressing that is used in transporting the frame across the shared local media. –Addresses at this layer have no meaning beyond the local network. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems.
a router will decapsulate the original frame. create a new frame for the packet.Addressing – Where the frame goes [Tony: MAC address is only local significant] If the packet in the frame must pass onto another network segment. and send it onto the new segment. the intermediate device . See the next 9 slides ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 25 . All rights reserved.
Packet propagation and switching within a router 1 ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 26 .
Cisco Public 27 . Inc.Packet propagation and switching within a router 2 ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.
All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 28 .Packet propagation and switching within a router 3 4 ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems.
All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 29 .Packet propagation and switching within a router 4 ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems.
All rights reserved. Cisco Public 30 . Inc.Packet propagation and switching within a router 5 ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems.
All rights reserved. Cisco Public 31 .Packet propagation and switching within a router 6 7 ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc.
All rights reserved.Packet propagation and switching within a router 7 ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 32 .
Cisco Public 33 .Packet propagation and switching within a router 8 ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.
Packet propagation and switching within a router 9 ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 34 .
–Error detection is accomplished by placing a mathematical summary of the bits in the trailer. the frame is discarded. Frame Check Sequence –This is the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) value. –This value is placed in the FCS field of the frame to represent the contents of the frame. of the frame. the frame is considered to have arrived as transmitted. Cisco Public 35 . When the frame arrives at the destination node. –The receiving node compares the two CRC values. All rights reserved. the receiving node calculates its own logical summary. If the two values are the same. –The trailer is used to determine if the frame arrived without error. –This process is called error detection. Inc. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. or CRC.Framing – Role of the Trailer Data Link layer protocols add trailer to the end of each frame. –If the CRC value in the FCS differs from the CRC calculated at the receiving node.
Cisco Public 36 . ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. the network. when implementing these protocols. Inc. Protocols that will be covered in CCNA courses include: –Ethernet –Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) –High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) –Frame Relay Each protocol performs media access control for specified Layer 2 logical topologies.the services to be provided over and Layer 2 switches.the technology used to implement can act as nodes that operate at the Data Link layer that topology.the size of the network – –These devices include the network interface cards -the number of hosts (NICs) on computers as well as the interfaces on routers -the geographic scope . . All rights reserved. The Layer 2 protocol used for a particular network topology is –This means that a number of different network devices determined by .The Frame The actual Layer 2 protocol used depends on the logical topology of the network and the of the Physical layer.
Ethernet Protocol for LANs Ethernet is a family of networking technologies that are defined in the IEEE 802. –Ethernet standards define both the Layer 2 protocols and the Layer 1 technologies. –Shared media requires that the Ethernet frame header to identify the source and destination nodes. or 10. –Ethernet is the most widely used LAN technology and supports data bandwidths of 10.000 Mbps. Inc. Ethernet provides unacknowledged connectionless service over a shared media using CSMA/CD. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37 . this address is referred to as the MAC address of the node.2 and 802. –However. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Ethernet II is the Ethernet frame format used in TCP/IP networks. 1000. –The basic frame format and the IEEE sublayers of OSI Layers 1 and 2 remain consistent across all forms of Ethernet. 100. –As with most LAN protocols. –An Ethernet MAC address is 48 bits and is generally represented in hexadecimal format.The Frame . the methods for detecting and placing data on the media vary with different implementations.3 standards.
Inc.org/wiki/Ethertype 38 . padding bytes are inserted to ensure at least a 64-byte frame.3 FYI –Preamble---The alternating pattern of ones and zeros tells receiving stations that a frame is coming (Ethernet or IEEE 802.3 frame. which must be defined within the data portion of the frame.htm If the Type/Length field has a value of 1536 or higher then the frame is Ethernet V2 http://en.3)---After physical-layer and link-layer processing is complete. All rights reserved.Ethernet Protocol for LANs Ethernet II vs. –Data (Ethernet)---After physical-layer and link-layer processing is complete.wikipedia. It is used for timing synchronization.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/c isintwk/ito_doc/ethernet. If data in the frame is insufficient to fill the frame to its minimum 64-byte size. which is identified in the Type field. the data is sent to an upper-layer protocol. Ethernet expects at least 46 bytes of data. –Data (IEEE 802.cisco.The Frame . if at all. –Destination and Source Addresses--–Type (Ethernet)---The type specifies the upper-layer protocol to receive the data after Ethernet processing is completed. –Frame Check Sequence (FCS) ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. which serve to synchronize the frame-reception portions of all stations on the LAN. the data contained in the frame is sent to an upper-layer protocol.3)---The length indicates the number of bytes of data that follows this field.3 delimiter byte ends with two consecutive 1 bits.3). Cisco Public http:///www. Although Ethernet Version 2 does not specify any padding (in contrast to IEEE 802. –Length (IEEE 802. The Ethernet frame includes an additional byte that is the equivalent of the Start-of-Frame field specified in the IEEE 802. –Start-of-Frame (SOF)---The IEEE 802. IEEE 802.3).
. it can sync to the first speed it understands from the other side. To determine the speed. or attempt to guess. It is also worth pointing out that the contents and format of the data that is sent is irrelevant. If the other side thinks a collision has taken place.. Each value (1 or 0) is represented by a specific state change. just like human speech played at ten times the normal speed sounds like noise. If the other side is happy with this. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. it must be in full-duplex mode.PREAMBLE: Ethernet auto-negotiation Each Ethernet frame (or packet) starts out with a sequence of bits that alternate between 1 and 0 that looks like this: 1010101010101010. if the other side of a link can do full-duplex or not is to start transmitting something as soon as you start to receive a signal from the other end. just the fact that the data is sent. Cisco Public 39 . This passive system allows the interfaces to determine a common speed very quickly with a great deal of reliability. All rights reserved.The other side will start to receive your transmission before finishing up their own.. The only way to detect. If an interface is not capable of doing a higher speed. the electrical signal on the Ethernet media transitions from "high" to "low" and back at the same speed the bits are being transmitted. the bit pattern will look like signal noise. the interface needs to measure only the time between the transitions. so when these bits are transmitted. If each interface starts at its highest speed and works down. Inc. you know the other interface is in half-duplex mode.
–The PPP session hides the underlying physical media from the upper PPP protocol. and multilink (the use of multiple physical connections). and satellite transmission. –These sessions also provide PPP with a method for encapsulating multiple protocols over a point-to-point link. called sessions. –This includes authentication. between two nodes. CCNA 4 ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. –Each protocol encapsulated over the link establishes its own PPP session. PPP establishes logical connections.Point-to-Point Protocol for WANs Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a protocol used to deliver frames between two nodes.The Frame . Inc. –PPP was developed as a WAN protocol and remains the protocol of choice to implement many serial WANs. as well as for virtual connections. Cisco Public 40 . All rights reserved. the PPP standard is defined by RFCs. compression. –PPP can be used on various physical media. including twisted pair. fiber optic lines. –Unlike many Data Link layer protocols that are defined by electrical engineering organizations.
–Making the nodes back off for a random period greatly reduces the likelihood of a collision. –Other services supported by 802. 802. Cisco Public 41 .11 networks also use Data Link acknowledgements to confirm that a frame is received successfully. It uses the same 802.Wireless Protocol for LANs 802. The Standard IEEE 802.The Frame . –This explicit acknowledgement overcomes interference and other radio-related problems. the frame is retransmitted. either because the original data frame or the acknowledgment was not received intact. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. commonly referred to as Wi-Fi.11 is an extension of the IEEE 802. and privacy (encryption).11. association (connectivity to a wireless device). –CSMA/CA specifies a random backoff procedure for all nodes that are waiting to transmit. All rights reserved.2 LLC and 48-bit addressing as other 802 LANs. is a contention-based system using a Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA). –If the sending station does not detect the acknowledgement frame.11 are authentication. –However there are many differences at the MAC sublayer and Physical layer. Inc.
Set to 1 if the frame is a retransmission of an earlier frame Power Management field .Version of 802.The Frame .MAC address of the final destination node in the network Source Address (SA) field .MAC address that identifies the wireless device that transmitted the frame Sequence Number field .11 frame in use Type and Subtype fields .Set to 1 in a data type frame that uses Strictly Ordered service class (does not need reordering) Duration/ID field . required to transmit the frame or an association identity (AID) for the station that transmitted the frame Destination Address (DA) field .Set to 1 for frames that have another fragment Retry field .11 frame is shown in the figure. in microseconds. data. Inc.Depending on the type of frame.MAC address of the node the initiated the frame Receiver Address (RA) field .Contains the information being transported.Set to 1 in data frames destined for the distribution system (devices in the wireless structure) From DS field .Set to 1 to indicate to a node in power-save mode that more frames are buffered for that node Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) field .Set to 1 if the frame contains WEP encrypted information for security Order field . Cisco Public ITE 1 Chapter 6 42 .Contains a 32-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) of the frame © 2006 Cisco Systems.Wireless Protocol for LANs An 802.Set to 1 in data frames exiting the distribution system More Fragments field . represents either the time. retransmitted frames are identified by duplicate sequence numbers Fragment Number field .Indicates the number for each fragment of a frame Frame Body field .Identifies one of three functions and sub functions of the frame: control. and management To DS field .Set to 1 to indicate that a node will be in power-save mode More Data field .MAC address that identifies the wireless device that is the immediate recipient of the frame Transmitter Address (TA) field . It contains these fields: Protocol Version field . All rights reserved.Indicates the sequence number assigned to the frame. typically an IP packet FCS field . for data frames.
We encourage you to read each explanation carefully and study the operation of the layers for each device. you can step through this communication. Many parts of the headers are ignored. we are assuming that a TCP session is already established between the client and server. We highlight the function of each layer during the communication. We are assuming that all routing tables are converged and ARP tables are complete. For this example we will depict an HTTP request between a client and a server. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. Additionally. Cisco Public 43 . for example. To focus on the data transfer process. On the next page. we are omitting many elements that may occur in a real transaction. In each step we are only bringing attention to the major elements.Follow Data Through an Internetwork The figure on the next page presents a simple data transfer between two hosts across an internetwork. We will also assume that the DNS lookup for the WWW server is already cached at the client. In the WAN connection between the two routers. we are assuming that PPP has already established a physical circuit and has established a PPP session. All rights reserved.
Cisco Public 44 . Inc. All rights reserved.Follow Data Through an Internetwork ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems.
Inc.Follow Data Through an Internetwork ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 45 . All rights reserved.
Follow Data Through an Internetwork ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 46 . All rights reserved. Inc.
Follow Data Through an Internetwork ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 47 . All rights reserved. Inc.
Follow Data Through an Internetwork ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 48 . Inc.
Cisco Public 49 .Summary ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.