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(GENERATION OF COMPUTER

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• Modern age of computers is divided into five generations of computers • First Generation (1945-1956) • Second Generation (1956-1963) • Third Generation (1964-1974) • Fourth Generation (1971-Present) • Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond)
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Mark-I
• Developed by Howard H. Aiken (19001973) • Developed in 1944 • It used electro magnetic signals • It was slow machine took 3-5 seconds to perform a calculation • It was inflexible • It could perform basic arithmetic as well as complex calculations
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First Generation (1945-1956)
• Applications: These computers were used for record keeping and payroll processing • Features: 1.Vacuume tubes were used as electronic components 2.Electronic digital computers were developed
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First Generation (1945-1956)
3. These computers were fastest calculating device of their time 4. Computations were performed in milliseconds

• Limitations:
1. Too large in size 2. Unreliable 3. Produce large amount of heat due to vacuum tubes
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First Generation (1945-1956)
4. Air conditioning required 5. Frequent hardware failure 6. Constant maintenance required 7. Non-portable 8. Commercial production was difficult and costly

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Early Vacuum Tubes
A model of the Fleming valve illustrates the technology that led to the development of the vacuum tube, one of the most important early electronic devices. A typical vacuum tube consists of electrodes (metal plates) and wires in an evacuated glass bulb and is used to regulate electric currents or electronic signals. Before the advent of the transistor, vacuum tubes were used extensively in the operation of devices such as televisions, radios, and computers. Sir John Ambrose Fleming experimented with Edison’s diode vacuum tube (an invention Edison did not pursue) during the early 1900s, and his valves represent the first practical radio tubes.
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ENIAC
• ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) • Developed by John Presper Eckert (1919-1995) and John W. Mauchley (1907-1980) • Developed in 1946 • Space requirement 20 X 40 sq. ft.
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ENIAC
• • • • It was a general purpose digital computer No. of vacuum tubes used 19,000 No. of resistors used 70,000 No. of calculations performed in a second 5000 • Initially data was inputted to ENIAC by manually setting switches • Later on card reader was developed to input data to ENIAC
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ENIAC
• When ENIAC completed calculations it inform the users by turning on a sequence of lights • It was used until 1955 • Only one system of ENIAC was developed • It consumed 160 KW of electronic power • When operated the lights of near by area were dimmed
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ENIAC
• EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) • Developed in 1949 by Britishes • EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Calculator) • Developed by John Von Neuman (19031957) • It contain a memory to store data and programs as well
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UNIVAC
• UNIVAC (UNIVersal Automatic Computer) • Developed by John Presper Eckert, Jr., and John Mauchly • Developed in 1951 • First commercial computer • Could manipulate numeric as well as textual data
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UNIVAC

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Features of UNIVAC
• • • • • No. of vacuum tubes used 5000 Space occupied 943 cubic ft. Weight 8 tons Designed to solve commercial problems Total of 48 UNIVAC systems were developed during 1951-1957

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Second Generation(1956-1963)
• Applications: The major applications were record keeping, payroll processing, updating files • Features: 1. Transistors were used instead of vacuum tubes 2. Smaller in size as compare to first generation computers 3. Much reliable 4. Less heat generated
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Second Generation(1956-1963)
4. Computations were performed in microseconds 5. Less hardware failures 6. Better portability 7. Commercially used 8. They contain printer, memory, stored program, tape drives, disk storage and operating systems
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Second Generation(1956-1963)
• IBM 1401 was developed at that time • Computer has memory so that instructions can be replaced by new instructions to perform new task • Programming languages such as FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator) and COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language) were developed at that time
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Third Generation (1964-1971)
• Applications: With all of the applications of previous generations the computers were used for airline reservations, market forecasting, credit cards, billing etc. • Features: 1. Smaller in size as compared to previous generations
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Third Generation (1964-1971)
2. Increased reliability 3. Heat generation was rear 4. Computations were performed in nanoseconds 5. Hardware failure was very rare 6. Low maintenance cost 7. Very easy portable

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Third Generation (1964-1971)
8. Very General purpose 9. Less electricity consumption 10.Commercial production was easier and cheaper 11.Integrated circuits were used

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Third Generation (1964-1971)
12.Integrated circuit contains many electronic components on single chip 13.They could run 5 million instructions per second 14.They could store upto 8 million characters

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Third Generation (1964-1971)
15. In 1969 Intel 4004 microprocessor was developed and used only in calculators 16. Systems developed in this generations were IBM-360, IBM-370 17.These systems were multi-user, multiprogramming and multi-processing

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Third Generation (1964-1971)
• Limitations: 1. Air conditioning required 2. Frequent maintenance required 3. Commercial production was costly

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IBM-360

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Fourth Generation (1971-Present)
• Features: 1. Smallest in sizeVery 2. Reliable 3. No heat generated 4. No air conditioning was required in many cases 5. Minimal maintenance required 6. Minimal hardware failure
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Fourth Generation (1971-Present)
7. Very portable 8. Much faster 9. Totally general purpose 10.Very inexpensive 11. 5.25 inch and 3.25 inch floppy disk were introduced 12. First supercomputer Cray- I was developed in 1976
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Cray-II
• • • • Cray-II was developed in 1985 Used for speech analysis Complex mathematical calculations Weather forecasting

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Cray-II Supercomputer

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Personal Computer
• Personal computer (PC) was invented in this generation by IBM • It can be used in office, homes, schools and anywhere • Operating system DOS for PC was developed • Windows operating system were also developed to provide user friendly interaction with PC • Size of PC reduced to the size of notebook, then to the palm of a person
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Apple Mac
• Developed by Apple company • Year 1984 • First user friendly operating system Mac was used in Apple Mac

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Fifth Generation (Present-Beyond)
• This generation includes the features to make computer intelligent • Applications of artificial intelligence are being added to computers • Expert systems are being developed to professionals in their field • Doctors can use expert system to diagnose diseases
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Fifth Generation (Present-Beyond)
• Surgeons use expert system to operate • Manufacturing industries use these systems to manufacture products • Engineers use these systems to design circuits • Architect use these system to design maps • And many, many other applications are there Liaquat Ali Rahoo
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