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1. How would you proof that two allelic pairs are linked or not? The gene linkage can be detected by the backcross with the double recessive homozygot. If the gene linkage occurs, the ratio of phenotypes will show deviations from the testcross ratio of 1:1:1:1. Determine the strength of the gene linkage between genes A and B if you know that the ratio of phenotypes in the B1 generation is: 902 individuals of the AB phenotype, 898 ab, 98 Ab and 102 aB. For to obtain this offspring, you used parents with the following genetical background: AB/AB x ab/ab. p = number of recombinants / number of all individuals p = 98+102 / 902+898+98+102 = 0.1 = 10% of recombinants or map units = 10 cM.

2.

3. What is the backcross ratio after you cross the offspring of the parental generation Ab/Ab x aB/aB with the double-recessive homozygot ab/ab? You get 1850 individuals after the backcross mentioned above. The strength of the gene linkage between A and B is 40% of recombinations. Ab/Ab x aB/aB - offspring Ab/aB, B1: Ab/aB x ab/ab

Ab ab Ab/ab

aB aB/ab

AB AB/ab

ab ab/ab

AB/ab, ab/ab corresponds to 40% of the total number of offspring p=0,4 = AB + ab / 1850 ..... AB + ab = 0,4 . 1850 = 740 frequencies of AB and ab are theoretically concurrent 740/2 = 370 frequencies of Ab and aB are theoretically concurrent 1850 -370/2 = 555 Or 40% from 1850 is 740 number of recombinants (frequency 1:1) AB 370, ab 370; 60% bear chromatides with the parental (non-recombined) sets of alleles; 60% = 1110 Ab 555, aB 555

4. a) Rabbits bearing the allele En are spotted, whereas en codes the absence of colour spots. Allele l codes for the long (Angora) hair, and allele L codes the normal short rabbit hair. You should cross homozygous spotted rabbits with the normal length of the hair with Angora non-spotted rabbits. Describe genotypes of the P and F1 generation. Determine the gene linkage phase. P: EnL/EnL x enl/enl - cis phase F1: EnL/enl During the backcross (F1 x recessive homozygot) you obtained the following offspring: 83 spotted rabbits with normal lenght of hair 12 spotted rabbits with long hair 14 rabbits without spots and with normal length of hair 89 rabbits without spots and with long hair Write the course of the backcross.
enl EnL enl Enl enL EnL/enl enl/enl Enl/enl enL/enl 83 89 12 14

b)

c) Determine the strength of the gene linkage between both genes, and find out what is the ratio between the amount of parental and recombined gametes produced by the F1 dihybrid. p=12+14/83+89+12+14 = 0.13 = 13% of recombinants from the total c= 83+89/12+14 = 6,6 tj. approx 7x more parental gametes

d)

Calculate the phenotype and genotype ratio in the F2 generation. 7 1 1 7 . GametesEnL Enl enL enl . 7 EnL EnL/EnL 49 Enl/EnL 7 enL/EnL7 enl/EnL 49 1 Enl EnL/Enl 7 Enl/Enl 1 enL/Enl 1 enl/Enl 7 1 enL EnL/enL 7 Enl/enL1 enL/enL 1 enl/enL 7 7 enl EnL/enl 49 Enl/enl 7 enL/enl 7 enl/enl 49 enl/enl = 49 long hair, white enL/en- = 7+7+1 =15 short hair, white Enl/-nl = 7+7+1 = 15 long hair, spotted others = 49+7+7+49+7+7+49+1+1=177 = short hair, spotted

5. 6. Determine the order of genes on the chromosome if uou know that p=5% for genes A and B, p=3% for genes B and C nad 2% for genes A and C.

## A-B p=5%, B-C p=3%, A-C p=2%; order: ACB

a)

Dominant allele D is coding for the Rh+ factor, recessive genotype dd is coding for the Rh- phenotype (absence of the Rh factor on the surface of erythrocytes). Oval shape of erythrocytes (eliptocytosis) is coded by the dominant allele E, whereas the homozygously recessive genotype ee is coding the normal round shape of erythrocytes. Both genes are in the genetic distance of 20 cM. There is a man with the eliptocytosis, whose mother had a normal shape of erythrocytes and was homozygous for Rh+. His father was Rh- and heterozygous for for the eliptocytosis. The man got married with a healthy woman bearing Rh- factor. What is the probability that the first child will be Rh- with an eliptocytosis?

Rh+ = DD, Dd Rh- = dd EE, Ee = eliptocytosis, ee = normal erythrocytes mother De/De, father dE/de, man De/dE, his wife de/de p = 20 % dE/de with the probability 40% (De/de 40%, dE/de 40%, DE/de 10%, de/de 10%)

b) c) What is the probability that the first child will be eliptocytic and Rh+?

DE/de = 10%
If the first child is Rh+, what is the probability that it will suffer from the eliptocytosis too?

De/de + DE/de ( 4:1 ), it means DE/de is present with the 20% probability
7.

AB/ab c =2 (number of individuals with the parental genotype is two-times higher than the number of those with the recombined genotype) number of individuals in B1 = 1585 Numerousness: 2-times more Gametes AB ab AB/ab No. of individuals: 528 2-times more ab ab/ab 528 1 Ab Ab/ab 264 1 aB aB/ab 264

Determine the cross ratios in B1 of the hybrid AB/ab if c=2, and the number of offspring in the B1 generation is 1585.

The sum of individuals (1585) should be divided into six equal parts = 264

8. What is the cross ratio of the hybrid Ab/aB in the F2 generation, if c=5?

F1: Ab/aB c=5 F2: Ab/aB x Ab/aB AB: 1+5+5+1+5+5+1+25+25 = 73 Ab: 25+5+5 = 35 aB: 25+5+5 = 35 ab: 1 phenotype cross ration in the F2 generation is 73 : 35 : 35 : 1

1x AB

5x Ab

5x aB

1x ab

1x
5x 5x 1x

AB
Ab aB ab

1
5 5 1

5
25 25 5

5
25 25 5

1
5 5 1

9. a) b) The woman (X DH / X dh) is a carrier (heterozygot) of recessive alleles for a daltonism (colour-blindness) and a haemophily. Relative distance of genes is 10 cM. In which percentual ratio arise the recombined gametes in the woman? Write their genotypes.

## XDH ( 45%), Xdh ( 45%), XDh (5%), XdH (5%)

What is the probability that she will have a haemophilic and daltonic son? What is the probability that she will have a haemophilic but not daltonic son or a daltonic but not haemophilic son or a healthy son? You should assume that the father is X DH / Y.

haemophilic or daltonic 5%, haemophilic and daltonic 45%, healthy son 45%
c)

The same you should calculate for the case that the mother has got all the allelic pairs in the trans stage.