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CONNECTING WORDS

e Preposition e
Prepositions are words that show relationships among other words in the sentence. The relationships include direction, place, time, cause and manner.

e Conjunction e

e Preposition e
Ella went to the cake shop a while ago. (shows direction) She went there by bus. She returned home at 3:00. (shows manner) (shows time)

John forgot her key under the counter. (shows place)

Prepositions always go with a noun or pronoun which is called the object of the preposition. Prepositions are almost always before the noun or pronoun and that is why they are called preposition. The preposition and the object of the preposition together is called a Prepositional Phrase. The chart below shows the preposition, the object of the preposition, and the prepositional phrases of the sentences above.
Preposition
to by at under

Object of the preposition


the store Bus three oclock the counter

Prepositional Phrase
To the store by bus at three oclock under the counter

Prepositional phrase are like idioms and are best learned through

LISTENING
and

READING
as much as possible.

KINDS OF PREPOSITIONS
1. Preposition of TIME
a) One point in time
i) On is used with day and dates:
Frank will see you on Monday. Our church service is on Sundays. My birthday is on July 29.

ii) At is used with noon, night, midnight, and with the time of day:
Dr. Jacksons plane leaves at noon. The recital ends at 8:00 pm. iii) In is used with other periods of the day, with months, with years, with seasons: Colleen likes to swim in the morning. The days are long in August. The play was shown in 2001. In America, flowers bloom in spring.

b)

Extended Time
To state ideas of extended time, English uses the following prepositions: since, for, by, from to, from until, during, (with)in
Grandmother has been in California since 2003. (She has lived in California from 2003 until the present) The candidates are going to Japan for two months. (They will stay in Japan for two months) They will rehearse from May to July. (Beginning in May and ending in July) The streamer was up from the first semester until summer. (Beginning in the first semester and ending in summer) Debbie watches TV during the evening. (For some period of time in the evening) The trainees must finish the training within a year. (no longer than year)

KINDS OF PREPOSITIONS
2. Preposition of Place
a) To state ideas of place, English uses the following prepositions:
In, Inside - to express something enclosed On - to talk about an open surface

At to talk about a specific point in the whole vicinity: before the numeral/s in an address; to refer to an event
There is wasp in the room. Put the present inside the box. I left your keys on the table. She was waiting at the corner. She lives at 143 Star Street, Somerset, New Jersey. He is at the wedding now.

In & On for transportation in the car on the bus on the plane on the train on the ship (small vehicle) (large vehicles)

In for City and Country; for body of water


In New York City In the U.S. In the ocean; in the lake In the river; in the sea

b) Higher than a point


To express notions of an object being higher than a point, English uses the following prepositions: over, above
She threw the stone over the roof. Hang the painting above headboard.

c) Lower than a point


To express notions of an object being lower than a point, English uses the following prepositions: under, underneath, beneath, below
The snake holed under the ground. The mouse ran underneath the carpet. We had a picnic beneath the shade of the tree. Blue jays like to hover below the clouds.

d) Close to a point
To express notions of an object being close to a point, English uses the following prepositions: near, by, next to, between, among, opposite
Our supervisor lives near the office. Sally went out to a cake shop by the store. She works in an office next to her school. Ben stays in a dormitory between Amber St. & Indigo St. Mother found my necklace among my folders. Uncle Larrys coffee shop is opposite the comedy bar.

KINDS OF PREPOSITIONS
3. Preposition of DIRECTIONS
To signifies orientation toward a goal. When the goal is physical, such as a destination, to implies movement in the direction of the goal.
Jeff went to Maras apartment.

When the goal is not a physical place, for instance, an action, to marks a verb; it is attached as an infinitive and expresses purpose. The preposition may occur alone or in the phrase in order.
Vince washed his dog to get rid of its fleas.

The other two prepositions of directions are compounds formed by adding to to the corresponding prepositions of location. The preposition of location determines the meaning of the preposition of direction.
ON + TO = onto: signifies movement toward a surface IN + TO = into: signifies movement toward the interior of a volume

Uses of into
With verbs in motion, into and in are interchangeable except when the preposition is the last word or occurs directly before an adverb of time, manner or frequency. In this case only in (or inside) can be used.
The patient went into the doctors office.
The patient went in. (not into) Our new neighbors moved into the house next door yesterday. (to take up residence in a new home) Our new neighbors moved in yesterday.

e Conjunction e
Conjunctions are words that connect other words or group of words.
Bob and Dan are friends. (the conjunction and connects two nouns) (the conjunction or connects two verbs) (the conjunction but connects two groups of words)

He will drive or fly.

It is early but we can go.

KINDS OF CONJUNCTIONS
Coordinating conjunctions are conjunctions which connect two equal parts of a sentence. The most common are and, or, but, and so.
and is used to join or add words together in the sentence They ate and drank

or is used to show choice or possibilities


He will be here on Monday or Tuesday. but is used to show opposite or conflicting ideas She is small but strong. so is used to show result I was tired so I went to sleep.

Subordinating Conjunctions connect two parts of a sentence that are not equal. Examples are:
after although as because before if since than unless until when while

Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that work together. The most common are:
both . . . and either . . . or neither . . . nor not only . . . but also Both Jan and meg are good swimmers.