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An Example of Bilingualism

Hablo un mix de los dos languags

A short Spanglish conversation: Anita: "Hola, good morning, como ests?"


"Good, y t?"
"Todo bien. Pero tuve problemas parqueando mi carro this "S, I know. Siempre hay problemas parqueando in la area at this




Whats going on

Code-switching - moving from one language to another in normal conversation (it is very important to honor you abuelitas (grandparents)" Borrowing - the adaptation of an English word into a Spanish form ("Quiero parquear el coche") Direct translation - translation of an expression directly into Spanish using English syntax ("Te llamo para atrs" for "Ill call you back") Phonetic translation - the childrens cold remedy 'Vicks VaporRub' affectionately becomes "bibapor"


Tex-mex (or Chicano): Mexican-based in Texas Cubonics: Cuban-based in Florida Newyorican: Puerto Ricobased in New York

A sampling of Spanglish
A Selection of Spanglishaerbica (ay-RO-bi-ka) -- dynamic female. averaje (a-ve-RAH-je) -- average. boila (BOY-lah) -- heating appliance, boiler. carpeta (kar-PE-tah) -- carpet. chopin (TCHO-peen) -- 1.Shopping center mall. 2. n., going shopping. deiof (dey-OF) -- day off. frizer (FREE-zer) -- refrigerator. grocear (gro-SEAR) -- to acquire groceries.

jonrn (khon-RON) -- home run. lonche (LONCHE) -- 1. midday meal. 2. food served to guests at event. marqueta (mar-ke-tah) -- supermarket. pari (PA-ree) -- a party. ruki (ROOH-kee) -- novice.
From Spanglish: The Making of a New American Language (Rayo, an imprint of HarperCollins)

Spanishization Phonological adaptation

Final C dropping

Fast food fas foo [fas fu] [phen] [pen] [kuba] [kubHa] Steam [stim] [estin] Speak espeak

C softening

Final nasal substitution ([m] [n])


Initial schwa insertion in [s]C

(Complete) labialization of [v]

Venezuela [benezuela]
Shopping chopping

Defricativization of []

Spanishization Morphological adaptation

Spanish Verbalizer in English verbs

Hang out hangear (-ar & -ear are Spanish verbalizers) Lunch lonchar Leaklikeo (or liqueo) eo/-ero:Spanish nominalizers Park parkeo Holdup(pers) joldoperos Latin(girl or boy)Latina/Latino (-a/-o mark gender)

Spanish nominalizers in English verbs

Spanish inflection for English words

(It could also be considered a pure borrowing)

Englishization Is also possible

embarkated (a Spanish word embarcar or let someone down, is inflected with English morphology)

Reasons for this type of bilingualism

Cultural identity Naturalness Language gaps

English is concise and efficient Spanish has sabrosura, flavor

(Clark, p. 486)

Informality (humor & creativity) Social status

Assimilation or Acculturation?

Silvana Paternostro: Lets take that argument a little bit further. If they dont learn [English], they also will not follow the rules of what being an American means? Ilan Stavans*: Right. English is the great equalizer. Through language comes education, through language comes political participation, language becomes the way of being and of dreaming, and all that, and then the I love you, America. And that is not happening.

*author of Spanglish: The Making of A New American Language

Acculturation cultural modification of an
individual, group, or people by adapting to or borrowing traits from another culture; also : a merging of cultures as a result of prolonged contact

Not Assimilation to absorb into the culture

or mores of a population or group