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PREMEDIC MESIR 2013

Histology of Endocrine System

UMAR AHMAD MODERATOR: PROF. DR. FAUZIAH OTHMAN Department of Human Anatomy Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences Universiti Putra Malaysia.
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(receptors)

Hormone delivery

Synapse

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(Neurosecretion)

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O'Riordan et al., 2nd ed, page 5

Endocrine system
Pituitary (hypophysis) Anterior pituitary Posterior pituitary Adrenal gland (suprarenal) Adrenal cortex Adrenal medulla Thyroid gland Follicles Parafollicular cells Parathyroid gland Considered in other lectures: Endocrine pancreas Male Female Enteroendocrine
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PITUITARY

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Location of pituitary

US Federal Government

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Pituitary development

Ross and Pawlina. Histology: Text and Atlas, 5th ed, 2006, fig 21.4, pg 690

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Pituitary nomenclature
Pituitary nomenclature

Grays Anatomy, wikimedia commons

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Umar Ahmad Please also see Ross and Pawlina. Histology: Text 7
and Atlas, 5th ed, 2006, fig 21.3b, pg 689

Cells and hormones of the anterior pituitary


LM staining Cell type Hormone Growth hormone (GH) = somatotropin Releasing (+) or inhibiting (-) horm. GHRH (+) Somatostatin (-) [Dopamine (-) estrogen (+)] TRH (+)

Acidophil Somatotrope

Acidophil Mammotrope Prolactin (PRL) = lactotrope Basophil Thyrotrope Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) = thyrotropin

Basophil

Gonadotrope Luteinizing hormone GnRH (+) (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH); both = gonadotropin Corticotrope Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) = corticotropin
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Basophil (human)

CRH (+)
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Sep A.K. 11, Christensen 2013

Pituitary, low power LM

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Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 515

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Anterior pituitary, LM drawing

Image of cords of cells in anterior pituitary removed. Original here: Bailey's textbook of histology. 72(700)6

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Anterior pituitary, LM, trichrome stain

Sep 11, 2013 Medical Histology slide collection, slide MHUmar Stan Erlandsen 9/B/4 Ahmad

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Anterior pituitary, LM, H&E stain

Basophil

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Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology slide collection, slide MH-9B3

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Immunocytochemical localization of growth hormone, LM

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A.K. Christensen

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Immunocytochemical localization of luteinizing hormone in gonadotropes, fluorescence

Nucleus

Nucleus LH granules

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A.K. Christensen

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Anterior pituitary, EM

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Larry Kahn

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Pathway of hormone secretion

Fawcett. Histology, ed 11, p 486

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Cytoplasm of prolactin-secreting cell (lactotrope), EM

Golgi

Secretory granule

Rough ER
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Marilyn Farquhar in Memoirs of the Society for Endocrinology

Golgi and secretory granules, EM


Mitochondrion Nucleus

Golgi Granule

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Marilyn Farquhar in Memoirs of the Society for Endocrinology

Exocytosis of prolactin granules, EM

Sep 11,Marilyn 2013Farquhar in Memoirs of the Society for Endocrinology Umar Ahmad

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Regulation of the anterior pituitary

Hedges, 1987

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Regulation of anterior pituitary, detail

O'Riordan et al 1988, p 47

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SEM of pituitary: portal veins, capillaries, corrosion vascular cast

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Murakami T, 1975, Archivum Histologicum Japanicum 38:151-168

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Posterior pituitary
Hormones
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH = arginine vasopressin) Oxytocin

Neurosecretion
Hormones synthesized as part of larger proteins (neurophysins) in neuron cell bodies of hypothalamus. Transported in axons to pars nervosa (hormone cleaved from neurophysin). Hormone secreted from axon terminals into capillaries.

Pituicytes
Specialized glia of pars nervosa.
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Posterior pituitary, diagram

O'Riordan et al 1988, p 47

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Posterior pituitary, LM

Axon cross sections? Sep 11, 2013


A.K. Christensen

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Endings

Capillary

Nerve endings for hormone release, posterior pituitary

Pituicyte

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Weiss Histology, ed 5

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Pars intermedia, between anterior and posterior pituitary, human, LM.


Poorly developed and of doubtful function in humans.

Anterior

Posterior

Intermedia

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Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 516

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Pars intermedia, rat pituitary, LM

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A.K. Christensen

Rathke's pouch Umar Ahmad

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ADRENAL GLAND

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Adrenal (suprarenal) gland

Sep 11, Undetermined 2013 Source

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Location of the adrenal (suprarenal) gland, human

US Federal Government

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Human adrenal, low power LM

Baileys Histology

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Adrenal cortex
Zona glomerulosa
Main hormone: Aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid). General function: Maintain blood electrolyte balance. Main control: Angiotensin II.

Zona fasciculata
Main hormone: Cortisol (a glucocorticoid). General function: Includes regulating glucose and fatty acid metabolism, and response to stress. Main control: Pituitary ACTH.

Zona reticularis
Hormones: Some cortisol and androgens. Function and control: Similar to zona fasciculata.
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Adrenal cortex, human, LM

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Hadley Kirkman slide collection, slide K285

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Adrenal cortex, human, H&E, LM

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Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 547

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Adrenal blood vessels

Image of adrenal gland vasculature removed. Original here: Junqueira and Carneiro, 10th ed., 2003, page 414, fig 21-2.

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Adrenal blood vessels, corrosion vascular cast, SEM

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Virginia Black chapter, in Weiss Histology, 6th ed

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Zona glomerulosa (source of aldosterone), LM

Fasciculata

Sep 11, 2013 Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 548

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Zona fasciculata (source of cortisol), LM

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Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 549

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Zona fasciculata, EM

SER

Endothelium

Capillary lumen

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Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology slide collection, slide MH 9/F/4

Smooth ER in the cytoplasm of a zona fasciculata cell, EM

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Long and Jones 1967

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Zona reticularis, LM

Medulla

Zona fasciculata

Sep 11, 2013 Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 550

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Adrenal medulla
Hormones
Epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine (noradrenalin), both catecholamines. Two cell types, one for E and one for N. General function: Acute response to stress. Main control: Preganglionic sympathetic innervation.

Embryonic source
From neural crest cells, same as postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Although adrenal medulla cells do not have dendrites or axons, they behave like postganglionic sympathetic neurons, releasing norepinephrine/epinephrine in response to preganglionic sympathetic stimulation.

Also called "chromaffin cells"


Cells of the adrenal medulla are examples of "chromaffin cells," containing catecholamine granules that stain brown with potassium dichromate. Neurons of sympathetic ganglia The term is used in pathology. Sep 11,are 2013also chromaffin cells. Umar Ahmad 43

Adrenal medulla, LM

Sep 11, 2013 Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 565

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EM of adrenal medulla: norepinephrine and epinephrine cells


Nucleus

Norepinephrine

Epinephrine

Nucleus

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Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology Slide Collection, slide MH 9/G/2-P

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Nucleus

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Production of norepinephrine and epinephrine in the cytosol

Sep 11, 2013Regents of the University of Michigan

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THYROID GLAND

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Location of thyroid gland

US Federal Government, wikimedia commons

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Thyroid gland
Thyroid follicles
Thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3). Synthesis: A very large protein, thyroglobulin (660 kDa), is synthesized and then secreted into the follicle lumen. It is later taken up and broken down (with lysosomes) to yield T4 and T3. General function: To increase the body's metabolic rate. Main control: Pituitary TSH.

Parafollicular cells (= C-cells)


Hormone: Calcitonin. General function: Lower serum calcium. Main control: Serum calcium level.
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Thyroid follicle

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Modified from Hedge 1987

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Thyroid, low power LM

Blood vessel

Sep 11, Kirkman 2013 (Stanford) slide collection, slide 18 Hadley

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Thyroid follicles, LM

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Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology slide collection, slide MH 9/D/6

Thyroid follicles, LM

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Hadley Kirkman (Stanford) slide collection, slide K27

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Thyroid capillary beds, corrosion vascular cast, SEM

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Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology slide set, slide MH 9/D/5

Production of thyroid hormones by a follicular cell


Synthesize thyroglobulin and then secrete it into the colloid. Iodinate tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin. When stimulated by pituitary TSH, take up the thyroglobulin and break it down in lysosomes to release thyroid hormones T3 and T4.

Colloid

Modified from Junqueira and Carneiro, 10th ed., 2003, page 426, fig. 21-19 by R. Mortensen

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Colloid

Thyroid follicular cell, EM

Golgi

Nucleus

Lysosome

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Porter and Bonneville, 1968, Fine structure of cells and tissues, 3rd ed

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(increase in thyroid size)

Causes of goiter

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Rugh and Patton 1965, Physiology and biophysics, 19th ed

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Normal

Functional states of thyroid follicles


Normal Underactive = hypoactive Overactive = hyperactive

Image of thyroid follicles removed. Original here: 0'Riordan, 2nd ed, p 160.

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Underactive (hypoactive) thyroid follicles, LM

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A.K. Christensen

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Overactive (hyperactive) thyroid follicles

Sep 11, 2013 Umar Ahmad Medical Histology atlas by Stanley L. Erlandsen and Jean E. Magney

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Thyroid gland
Parafollicular cells (= C-cells)
Hormone: Calcitonin. General function: Lowers serum calcium. Main control: Serum calcium level.

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C cell location in thyroid

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Hedge 1987

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C-cell in thyroid follicular epithelium, LM

C-cell

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A.K. Christensen

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Immunocytochemical localization of calcitonin in C cells, LM


C cell

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Stan Erlandsen Medical Histology slide collection, slide MH 9/D/8

Parafollicular cell (C cell), EM

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Junqueira histology textbook

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Regulation of serum calcium


Parathyroid hormone (from parathyroid) Ca++ Calcitonin (thyroid parafollicular cells) Ca++

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PARATHYROID GLAND

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Location of the four parathyroid glands on the back of the thyroid

US Federal Government

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Parathyroid gland
Chief (or principal) cells
Hormone: Parathyroid hormone (PTH). Main function: Raises serum calcium, lowers serum phosphate. Main control: Serum calcium level.

Oxyphil cells
Occasional cells or small clusters. Function unknown. Name means "acid [stain] loving" (Greek).

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Parathyroid gland (mostly chief cells) , low power LM

Blood vessel

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Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med, slide 542

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Parathyroid, chief cells, one oxyphil (arrow), LM

Fat cell

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Humio Mizoguti, Kobe Univ Sch Med

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Parathyroid capillary bed, corrosion vascular cast, SEM

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Murakami et al 1987, Arch Hist Jap 50:495, fig 2 Umar Ahmad

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Oxyphil cell cluster, LM

Fat cell

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A.K. Christensen

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Oxyphil cell, EM diagram

Nucleus

Mitochondrion
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Thomas Lentz atlas

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