MARQUIS TECHNOLOGIES

An ISO 9001:2000 certified company Trusted Technology Partner

E-UTRAN Technology
Mayank Srinet
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Agenda
Introduction Overview of LTE 1. Architecture 2. Downlink 3. Uplink LTE Deployment Considerations Spectrum and Overlay 1. Emissions and Load Balancing

Coverage Link Budget Voice
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3GPP Release and Feature

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ESG Experience In LTE

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Overall EPS Architecture

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E-UTRA Design Performance Target

Scalable transmission bandwidth(up to 20 MHz) Improved Spectrum Efficiency  Downlink (DL) spectrum efficiency should be 2-4 times Release 6 HSDPA.  Downlink target assumes 2x2 MIMO for E-UTRA and single Tx antenna with Type 1 receiver HSDPA.  Uplink (UL) spectrum efficiency should be 2-3 times Release 6 HSUPA.  Uplink target assumes 1 Tx antenna and 2 Rx antennas for both E-UTRA and Release 6 HSUPA. Coverage  Good performance up to 5 km  Slight degradation from 5 km to 30 km (up to 100 km not precluded) Mobility  Optimized for low mobile speed (< 15 km/h)  Maintained mobility support up to 350 km/h (possibly up to 500 km/h) Advanced transmission schemes, multiple-antenna technologies Inter-working with existing 3G and non-3GPP systems  Interruption time of real-time or non-real-time service handover between E-UTRAN and UTRAN/GERAN shall be less than 300 or 500 ms.

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E-UTRA Air Interface Capabilities
Bandwidth support Flexible from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz Waveform OFDM in Downlink SC-FDM in Uplink

Duplexing mode FDD: full-duplex (FD) and half-duplex (HD) TDD
Modulation orders for data channels Downlink: QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM Uplink: QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM MIMO support Downlink: SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO (SDMA) Uplink: SDMA
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UE –eNB Communication Link
 Single and same link of communication for DL & UL DL serving cell = UL serving cell  No UL or DL macro-diversity –UL softer HO reception is an implementation choice –UE’s Active Set size = 1  Hard-HO based mobility UE assisted (based on measurement reports) and network controlled (handover decision at specific time) by default During a handover, UE uses a RACH based mobility procedure to access the target cell Handover is UE initiated if it detects a RL failure condition  Load indicator for inter-cell load control (interference management) Transmitted over X2 interface
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E-UTRA Air Interface Peak Data Rates

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Cyclic Prefix (CP)
In OFDM, multipath causes loss of orthogonality Delayed paths cause overlap between symbols

Cyclic Prefix (CP) insertion helps maintain orthogonality Reduces efficiency (or Usable Symbol time, Tu)

CP is a repetition of the modulation symbol

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Time Domain Organization

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Frequency Domain Organization
LTE DL/UL air interface waveforms use several orthogonal subcarriers to send user traffic data, Reference Signals (Pilots), and Control Information.

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Frequency Domain Configurations

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UL/DL Resource Grid Definitions

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Continued…

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Downlink Channelization Hierarchy

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Synchronization Signals (PSS & SSS)

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Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)

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Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)

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Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)

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Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)

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Physical HARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)

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DL Operation: Similarities to HSPA
 Shared Channel Operation  Channel Dependent Scheduling (CDS) Requires Channel Quality Information (CQI) sent on the UL Requires Pre-coding and Rank information sent on the UL for MIMO  Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) Requires informing the UE about allocated resources Requires informing the UE about Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS)  Hybrid ARQ (HARQ) Uses Asynchronous adaptive retransmissions Uses Synchronous ACK/NAKs Requires ACK/NAK sent on the UL  DL Modulation: QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM

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DL Operation: Differences from HSPA

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Initial Acquisition Procedure

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DL Scheduled Operation Overview

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E-UTRA DL Scheduling Principles
 Dynamic Scheduling: E-UTRAN dynamically allocates resources (PRBsand MCS) to UEsat each TTI via the C-RNTI on PDCCH(s). 1. UE monitors the PDCCH(s) to find possible allocation when its Downlink reception is enabled (activity governed by DRX when configured).  Semi-persistent Scheduling: Initially PDCCH indicates if the DL grant can be implicitly reused in the following TTIs according to the periodicity defined by RRC.

1. RRC defines the periodicity of the semi-persistent DL grant. Characterized by a start frame number, periodicity, and packet format (one or more may be defined).
2. Retransmissions are explicitly signaled via the PDCCH(s).
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DL ARQ/HARQ Principles
HARQ Principles(within MAC Layer) 1. N-process Stop-And-Wait, Asynchronous adaptive HARQ. 2. Uplink ACK/NAKs are sent on PUCCH or PUSCH. 3. PDCCH signals the HARQ process number and whether it is a transmission or retransmission. 4. Retransmissions are always scheduled through PDCCH.
ARQ Principles(within RLC Layer) 1. ARQ retransmits RLC PDUs or RLC PDU segments. 2. ARQ retransmissions are based on RLC status reports and, optionally, ARQ/HARQ interactions. 3. Polling for RLC status report is used when needed by RLC. ARQ/HARQ Interaction 1. Optional HARQ assisted ARQ operation. 2. ARQ uses knowledge from the HARQ about transmission failure status and RLC retransmission and re-segmentation can be initiated.
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ACK/NACK for PDSCH Transmissions

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CQI/PMI/RI Reporting Overview

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Uplink Channelization Hierarchy

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E-UTRA UL Channels and Signals
 Signals Demodulation Reference Signal (DM-RS) Sounding Reference Signal (SRS)Control  Control ACK, CQI, Rank Indicator (RI), Precoding support (PMI) Scheduling Request (SR) Single “control” channel -Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)  Data Unicast data and data + control Single “data” channel -Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)  Random Access Preamble sequences in Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)

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E-UTRA Uplink Reference Signals
Two types of E-UTRA/LTE Uplink Reference Signals: Demodulation reference signal 1. Associated with transmission of PUSCH or PUCCH 2. Purpose: Channel estimation for Uplink coherent demodulation/detection of the Uplink control and data channels 3. Transmitted in time/frequency depending on the channel type (PUSCH/PUCCH), format, and cyclic prefix type Sounding reference signal 1. Not associated with transmission of PUSCH or PUCCH 2. Purpose: Uplink channel quality estimation feedback to the Uplink scheduler (for Channel Dependent Scheduling) at the eNodeB 3. Transmitted in time/frequency depending on the SRS bandwidth and the SRS bandwidth configuration (some rules apply if there is overlap with PUSCH and PUCCH)

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OFDMA versus SC-FDMA

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Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)

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Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)

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Sounding Reference Signals (SRS)

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PRACH

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E-UTRA Uplink Operation Highlights
Link Adaptation(CDS –Channel Dependent Scheduling) Adaptive transmission Bandwidth Adaptive Modulation and Channel Coding Rate (AMC) Meets QoS requirements UL Power Control Intra-cell power control: the power spectral density of the Uplink transmissions can be influenced by the eNB. UL Timing Control Objective is to compensate for propagation delay and thus time-align the transmissions from different UEs with the receiver window of the eNB. The timing advance is derived from the UL received timing, and sent by the eNB to the UE. UE uses this information to advance/delay its timings of transmissions to the eNB. Random Access procedure UL Data transfer and HARQ

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UL HARQ Principles
 N-process Stop-And-Wait N configured by higher layers 8 processes for Normal HARQ Operation 4 processes for subframe Bundling Operation –A bundle of PUSCH transmissions consists of 4 consecutive Uplink subframes.  Synchronous HARQ Normal HARQ Operation: PDCCH and/or PHICH will be evaluated for adjusting PUSCH transmissions four subframes later. Subframe Bundling Operation: PDCCH in subframe n and/or PHICH in subframe n5, will be evaluated for adjusting PUSCH transmissions in subframe n+4.  PDCCH (DCI Format 0) carries information about UL-SCH assignments (UL grant) as well as a 1-bit New Data indicator (NDI), which determines if HARQ retransmission is needed.

HARQ retransmission is needed if the NDI does not toggle, and/or the HARQ NAK is received on PHICH.
PDCCH can indicate different resource and MCS for adaptive retransmissions.

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E-UTRA UL Scheduled Operation(Link Adaptation)

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E-UTRA UL Closed Loop Power Control

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Timing Advance / Alignment (TA)

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E-UTRA Random Access

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Network Planning Overview – 4G

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LTE Coverage Planning

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LTE Interference

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Frequency Deployment Scenarios

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N=1

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Future Feature: Fractional Frequency Reuse

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LTE Interference Mitigation

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Interference – Transmitter Emission Model

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Interference –Receiver Response Model

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Interference – 3GPP Terminology

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ACIR

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Near-Far Effect

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Co-Existence Scenarios

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Process for Co-Existence Planning

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LTE Reference Signal

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Link Budget –Definition
 An LTE Link Budget is utilized to quantify the Maximum Allowable Path Loss (MAPL) between the transmitter and the receiver in both the Downlink and Uplink. The resulting calculations enable the network designer to determine coverage dimensioning.
 The Link Budget is based on the following inputs: Gains, margins, and lossesfactor in each link Expected network configuration Target values (e.g., Data rate at cell edge) which should be translated into requirements(e.g., required SNR or Eb/Nt)  The key design outputsof a LTELink Budget are: Identification of the limiting link Resulting Maximum Allowable Path Lossper Morphology Estimated Cell Radius and Service area per Morphology to estimate the Required Cell Count(s) to serve specific Coverage Objective Area(s)

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Link Budget –Limitations
 A Link Budget represents a quick account of gains, margins, and losses present in each link. This assessment has some limitations: 1. Any formal network design also needs to consider capacity aspects, which also affect network resources A Link Budget reflects only coverage aspects of dimensioning A Link Budget is limited to specific channel types; it does not consider a mixed environment, custom demand, or specific subscriber distribution 2.Site configuration is differentiated only by morphology (representing the minimum resolution) which does not represent a realistic scenario In particular, a link budget consider that a given morphology is contiguous 3.A Link Budget does not utilize GIS data (digital elevation model (DEM) terrain, land use mapping, building data, etc). The coverage objectives are only represented by its area. The resulting accuracy is lower than a well configured prediction tool.  But a Link Budget allow to quickly perform sensitivity analysis

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Link Budget –Channels Considered
 The following Downlink Channels are considered: 1. Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH): Estimate the extend of the achievable coverage boundary.
2. Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH): Estimates the maximum achievable data rate under the specified design targets.  The following Uplink Channels are considered: 1. Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH): Can utilize different modulations (QPSK, 16-QAM or 64-QAM) Estimates the maximum achievable data rate under the specified design targets.  For both UL (PDSCH) and DL link budget (PUSCH) only 1 single channel model is considered.
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Voice Over LTE
 VoIP Capacity Latency Issues 1. Possible Solutions IMS Availability 1. Robustness Issues  CSFB Issues Fall back to 2G/3G 1. R99 / cdma2000 / CS over HS on HSPA Multiple RF chains 1. Can one get a voice call while on a data session  Volga

 No clear cut way forward Vendors pushing their own solution Each operator has their own view

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VoIP Capacity in LTE
 Phy/MAC Issues DL Capacity: ~250 VoIP calls / 5 MHz UL Capacity: ~200 VoIP calls / 5 MHz  Bottleneck: Uplink  Network Issues Lack of Forward Handover 1. No SHO –Call must be torn down and re-established Typical Handover Delay 1. DL: 360 ms (Aggressive: ~260ms) 2. UL: 185 ms (Aggressive: ~105ms) Possible Proprietary Forward Handover Solutions  IMS Issues Too many options Voice One has a good suggested profile No IMS Networks available today –design very mature

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Introduction to IMS
 IP Multimedia Subsystems: 3GPP, 3GPP2, and ITU-T (NGN)

 IMS defines a framework for delivering multimedia services over IP
 Framework provides following Architecture (Defines Functional Entities and Interfaces) Security (Authentication, Authorization, Integrity Protection) Accounting (Offline, Online) Defines Application Server Architecture

 IMS is Access Network Agnostic Single IMS core can cater to devices on different access networks e.g. LTE, cdma2000, WLAN, UMTS, cable-modem etc.
 Uses protocols defined by IETF SIP, SDP, Diameter  Defines Open Architecture  Services are delivered over IP End to end IP between and UE and network –avoid transcoding if possible  Enables interaction of dissimilar user devices  Facilitates convergence of multimedia services, e.g., gaming, web browsing, voice …

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IMS

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Voice over LTE (VoLTE)

Previously called One Voice

 A minimum feature set of IMS requited to support VoIP over LTE Includes support for call waiting, conference, etc. Started as an industry effort –led by operators Currently being specified in GSMA Uses SIP for call setup 1. SIP = Session Initiation Protocol  Proposal from AT&T, Orange, Telefonica, TeliaSonera, Verizon, Vodafone, Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson, Nokia Siemens Networks, Nokia, Samsung Electronics, Sony Ericsson  AMR is the default codec  IMS and VoLTE support by end of next year  SMS not part of this profile Violates IMS philosophy!  Meant to work on LTE only Can be extended to support HSPA
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Other VoIP Solutions
IMS Defines call set-up Can use other PS apps for voice How to do QoS? Question is who has control Is there a standard software that operators can produce just to use the existing the current network? Skype over LTE Can use LTE interface 1x for Skype users, and charge voice minutes Other similar applications possible More information awaited …

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Robustness Issues
No SHO in LTE Every call switch is a hard handoff Calls must be torn down and brought up Can cause outage and Radio Link Failure (RLF) Need to see performance in cases where there are lot of handoffs 1. Tokyo downtown 2. High speed trains 3. Ping-pong situations Possibility to tweak network settings per morphology
Only Backward Handover present in LTE Causes large handover delay Forward handover can be done 1. Proprietary solutions Reduces call set up time

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CSFB objective
 CS Fallback enables provisioning of CS voice and other CS domain services when UE is served by E-UTRAN E-UTRAN supports PS domain services only CSFB enabled terminal may use UTRAN, GERAN or 1xRTT to establish CS domain services Thus CSFB is needed by operators not supporting IMS PS voice services over E-UTRAN  When operators upgrade their networks to support IMS PS voice and other IMS services Need for CSFB will be obsolete

 CSFB may be needed only for a limited period of time

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Other Solutions
Support Voice on HSPA/cdma2000 In data call –voice arrives, will network downgrade? Two RF chains –cost an issue Circuit Switch Fallback Existing Networks Two RF Chains? Ix / R99 for voice Possibly overlay with DO No clear cut way forward Vendors pushing their own solution Each operator has their own view Volga -interim solution 1. Uses the 3GPP Generic Access Standard (GAN) 2. Uses the circuit switched network with LTE air interface 3. Entity between GSM call module and MAC layer of LTE 4. Expect to fit the bill till voice IMS is available –One Voice -blow to them

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LTE System Information Block
LTE system information is one of the key aspects of the air interface. It consists of the Master Information Block (MIB) and a number of System Information Blocks (SIBs). The MIB is broadcast on the Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH), while SIBs are sent on the Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) through Radio Resource Control (RRC) messages. SIB1 is carried by "SystemInformationBlockType1" message. SIB2 and other SIBs are carried by "SystemInformation(SI)" message. An SI message can contain one or several SIBs. 1. The MIB is the first thing a UE looks for after it achieves downlink synchronization. The MIB carries the most essential information that is needed for the UE to acquire other information from the cell. It includes:  The downlink channel bandwidth  The PHICH configuration. The Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel carries the HARQ ACKs and NACKs for uplink transmissions  The SFN (System Frame Number) which helps with synchronization and acts as a timing reference  The eNBtransmit antenna configuration specifying the number of transmit antennas at eNB such as 1, 2, or 4, which is carried by CRC mask for PBCH 2. SIB1 is carried in a SystemInformationBlockType1 message. It includes information related to UE cell access and defines the schedules of other SIBs, such as:  The PLMN Identities of the network  The tracking area code (TAC) and cell ID  The cell barring status, to indicate if a UE may camp on the cell or not  q-RxLevMin, which indicates the minimum required Rx Level in the cell to fulfill the cell selection criteria  The transmissions times and periodicities of other SIBs 10/09/2013 Confidential 72

Continued…
3. SIB2 contains radio resource configuration information common for all UEs, including:  The uplink carrier frequency and the uplink channel bandwidth (in terms of the number of Resource Blocks, for example n25, n50)  The Random Access Channel (RACH) configuration, which helps a UE start the random access procedure, such as preamble information, transmit time in terms of frame and Subframenumber (prach-ConfigInfo), and powerRampingParameterswhich indicates the Initial Txpower and ramping step.  The paging configuration, such as the paging cycle  The uplink power control configuration, such as P0-NominalPUSCH/PUCCH  The Sounding Reference Signal configuration  The Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) configuration to support the transmission of ACK/NACK, scheduling requests, and CQI reports  The Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) configuration, such as hopping

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Continued…
4. SIB3 contains information common for intra-frequency, inter-frequency, and/or inter-RAT cell reselection. This information does not necessarily apply to all scenarios; please refer to 3GPP TS36.304 for the details. The basic parameters include:
 

  

 

s-IntraSearch: the threshold for starting intra-frequency measurement. When s-ServingCell(i.e., cell selection criterion for serving cell) is higher than s-IntraSearch, the UE may choose not to perform measurement in order to save battery life. s-NonIntraSearch: the threshold for starting inter-frequency and IRAT measurements q-RxLevMin: the minimum required Rx level in the cell Cell reselection priority: the absolute frequency priority for E-UTRAN or UTRAN or GERAN or CDMA2000 HRPD or CDMA2000 1xRTT q-Hyst: the hysteresis value used for calculating the cell-ranking criteria for the serving cell, based on RSRP. t-ReselectionEUTRA: the cell reselection timer value for EUTRA. t-ReselectionEUTRAand q-Hystcan be configured to trigger cell reselection sooner or later.

5. SIB4 contains the intra-frequency neighboring cell information for Intra-LTE intra-frequency cell reselection, such as neighbor cell list, black cell list, and Physical Cell Identities (PCIs) for Closed Subscriber Group (CSG).CSG can be used to support Home eNBs. 6. SIB5 contains the neighbor cell related information for Intra-LTE inter-frequency cell-reselection, such as neighbor cell list, carrier frequency, cell reselection priority, threshold used by the UE when reselecting a higher/lower priority frequency than the current serving frequency, etc. (Note that 3GPP states that LTE neighbor cell search is feasible without providing an explicit neighbor list. Since the UE can do blind detection of neighbor cells in LTE, the broadcast of LTE neighbor cells is optional.)

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Continued…
7. SIB 6 contains information relevant only for inter-RAT cell re-selection i.e. information about UTRA frequencies and UTRA neighboring cells relevant for cell re-selection. This includes cell re-selection parameters common for a frequency in 3G. 8. SIB 7 contains information relevant only for inter-RAT cell re-selection i.e. information about GERAN frequencies relevant for cell re-selection. This includes cell re-selection parameters for each frequency in GSM/EDGE. 9. SIB 8 contains information relevant only for inter-RAT cell re-selection i.e. information about CDMA2000 frequencies and CDMA2000 neighboring cells relevant for cell re-selection. This includes cell re-selection parameters common for a frequency as well as cell specific re-selection parameters in CDMA2000. 10. SIB 9 contains a home eNB name (HNB Name). 11. SIB 10 contains an ETWS primary notification. 12. SIB 11 contains an ETWS secondary notification 13. SIB 12 contains a CMAS notification.

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T3412: TAU

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T3417 [EMM-REGISTERED state and EMM-IDLE mode] : CSFB

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Cell ID and Frequency Information

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CM Service Status

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Inter Frequency, I-RAT Cell Reselection

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MO Call Originated

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PDN Status

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RAU Request

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RAU Accept

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RRC Connection Setup

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I-RAT HO

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MO Call Connected & Conversation Started

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WCDMA to GSM HO

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Normal Call Clearing

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RAT Information

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PLMN Information

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GSM to LTE Reselection

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I-RAT To LTE

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Return to same Cell ID from where Journey started in beginning

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MARQUIS TECHNOLOGIES
www.marquistech.com

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