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Chapter 4 : Kinetics Of A Particle

Work and Energy


Chapter Objectives
To develop the principle of linear impulse and
momentum for a particle.
To study the conservation of linear momentum for
particles.
To analyze the mechanics of impact.
To introduce the concept of angular impulse and
momentum.
To solve problems involving steady fluid streams
and propulsion with variable mass.
Chapter Outline
Principle of Linear Impulse and Momentum
Principle of Linear Impulse and Momentum for a
System of Particles
Conservation of Linear Impulse for a System of
Particles
Impact
Angular Momentum
Relation between Momentum of a Force and
Angular Momentum
Angular Impulse and Momentum Principles
Steady Fluid Streams
Propulsion with a Variable Mass
Chapter Outline
Principle of Linear Impulse and Momentum
The equation of motion for a particle of mass m
can be written as
F = ma = m dv/dt
where a and v are both measured from an inertial
frame of reference.
Rearranging the terms and integrating between
the limits v = v
1
at t = t
1
and v = v
2
at t = t
2

1 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
v v F v F m m dt d m dt
t
t
v
v
t
t
= =

} }

}
or
This equation referred to as the principle of linear
impulse and momentum.
It provides a direct means of obtaining the
particles final velocity after a specified time period
when the initial velocity is known and the forces
acting on the particle are either constant or can be
expressed as a function of time.
Principle of Linear Impulse and Momentum
Linear Momentum
Each of the two vectors of the form G = mv is
referred to as the particles linear momentum.
The linear-momentum vector has the same
direction as v, and its magnitude mv has unit of
mass-velocity, kg.m/s
Principle of Linear Impulse and Momentum
Linear Impulse
The integral is referred to as the linear
impulse, which is a vector quantity which
measures the effect of a force during the time the
force acts.
The impulse acts in the same direction as the
force, and its magnitude has unit of force-time, N.s
}
= dt F I
Principle of Linear Impulse and Momentum
Principle of Linear Impulse and Momentum
The equation is rewritten in the form
2 1
2
1
v F v m dt m
t
t
= +

}
which state that the initial momentum of
the particle at t
1
plus the sum of all the
impulses applied to the particle from t
1

to t
2
is equivalent to the final momentum
of the particle at t
2
Principle of Linear Impulse and Momentum
If the magnitude or direction of a force varies with
time, the impulse is represented on the impulse
diagram as

If the force is constant, the impulse applied to the
particle is F
c
(t
1
t
2
), and it acts in the same
direction as F
c

}
2
1
t
t
dt F
Principle of Linear Impulse and Momentum
Scalar Equations
Resolving each of the vectors in the equation of
principle of linear impulse and momentum into its x,
y, z components,
2 1
2 1
2 1
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
z
t
t
z z
y
t
t
y y
x
t
t
x x
v m dt F v m
v m dt F v m
v m dt F v m
= +
= +
= +

}
Principle of Linear Impulse and Momentum
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
Free-Body Diagram
Establish the x, y, z inertial frame of reference and
draw the particles free-body diagram in order to
account for all the forces that produce impulses on
the particle.
The direction and sense of the particles initial and
final velocities should be established.
If a vector is unknown, assume that the sense of
its components is in the direction of the positive
inertial coordinate(s).
As an alternative procedure, draw the impulse
and momentum diagrams for the particle.
Principle of Impulse and Momentum
In accordance with the established coordinate
system apply the principle of linear impulse and
momentum,
2 1
2
1
mv dt F mv
t
t
= +

}
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
If the motion occurs in the x-y plane, the two
scalar components equations can be formulated by
either resolving the vector components of F from
the free-body diagram, or by using the data on the
impulse and momentum diagrams.
Realize that every force acting on the particles
FBD will create an impulse, even though some of
these forces will do no work.
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
Forces that are functions of time must be
integrated to obtain the impulse. The impulse is
equal to the area under the force-time curve.
If the problem involves the dependent motion of
several particles, use method to relate their
velocities. Make sure the positive coordinate
directions used for writing these kinematics
equations are the same as those used for writing
the equations of impulse and momentum.
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
Example
The 100-kg stone is originally at rest on the smooth
horizontally surface. If a towing force of 200 N,
acting at an angle of 45, is applied to the stone for
10 s, determine the final velocity and the normal
force which the surface exerts on the stone during
the time interval.
Free-Body Diagram. Since all forces acting are
constant, the impulses are simply the product of
the force magnitude and 10 s [I = F
c
(t
2
t
1
)].
Principle of Impulse and Momentum. Resolving
the vectors along the x, y, z axes,
s m v
v
v m dt F v m
x
t
t
x x
/ 1 . 14
) 100 ( 45 cos ) 10 ( 200 0
) ( ) (
2
2
2 1
2
1
=
= +
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|


}
+

( )
N N
N
v m dt F v m
C
C
y
t
t
y y
840
0 45 sin ) 10 ( 200 ) 10 ( 981 ) 10 ( 0
) ( ) (
2 1
2
1
=
= + +
= + | +

}

Since no motion occurs in the y direction, direct


application of the equilibrium equation F
y
= 0 gives
the same result for N
C
Example
The 250-N crate is acted upon by a force having a
variable magnitude P = (100t) N. Determine the
crates velocity 2 s after P has been applied. The
initial velocity is v
1
= 1 m/s down the plane, and the
coefficient of kinetic friction between the crate and
the plane is
k
= 0.3.
Free-Body Diagram. The impulse created can be
determined by integrating P = 100t over the 2-s
time interval. The weight, normal force and
frictional force are all constant, so the impulse
created by each of these forces is simply the
magnitude of the force times 2 s.
Principle of Impulse and Momentum.
2
2
2
0
2 1
5 . 25 250 6 . 0 200 5 . 25
81 . 9
250
30 sin ) 2 ( 250 ) 2 ( 3 . 0 ) 100 ( ) 1 (
81 . 9
250
) ( ) (
2
1
v N
v N dt t
v m dt F v m
C
C
x
t
t
x x
+ + +
= + +
= +
}

}

+
The equation of equilibrium can be applied in the y
direction
0 30 cos 250 =

C
N
+
N
C
= 216.5 N v
2
= 13.6m/s
Example
Block A and B have a mass of 3 kg and 5 kg
respectively. If the system is released from rest,
determine the velocity of block B in 6 s.
Free-Body Diagram. Since the weight
of each block is constant, the cord
tensions will also be constant.
Furthermore, since the mass of pulley D
is neglected, the cord tension T
A
= 2T
B
.
Note that the blocks are both assumed to
be traveling downward in the positive
directions, s
A
and s
B
Principle of Impulse and Momentum.
Block A:
( )
2
2 1
) )( 3 ( ) 6 )( 81 . 9 ( 3 ) 6 ( 2 0
) ( ) (
2
1
A B
A
t
t
y A
v T
v m dt F v m
= +
= + + +

}
Block B:
( )
2
2 1
) )( 5 ( ) 6 ( ) 6 )( 81 . 9 ( 5 0
) ( ) (
2
1
B B
B
t
t
y B
v T
v m dt F v m
= +
= + + +

}
(1)


(2)
Kinematics.
l s s
B A
= + 2
Taking time derivative yields
B A
v v = 2
As indicated by the negative sign, when B moves
downward A moves upward. Substituting this result
into Eq. 1 and solving Eqs. 1 and 2 yields
(v
B
)
2
= 35.8 m/s T
B
= 19.2 N
Free-Body Diagram
Establish the x, y, z inertial frame of reference and
draw the FBD for each particle of the system in
order to identify the internal and external forces.
The conservation of linear momentum applied to
the system in a given direction when no external
forces or if non-impulsive forces act on the system
in that direction
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
Establish the direction and sense of the particles
initial and final velocities. If the sense is unknown,
assume it is along a positive inertial coordinate
axis.
As an alternative procedure, draw the impulse
and momentum diagrams for each particle of the
system.
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
Momentum Equations
Apply the principle of linear impulse and
momentum or the conservation of linear
momentum in the appropriate directions
If it is necessary to determine the internal impulse
F.dt acting on only one particle of a system, then
the particle must be isolated (free-body diagram),
and the principle of linear impulse and momentum
must be applied to the particle.
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
After the impulse is calculated, and provided the
time t for which the impulse acts is known, then
the average impulsive force F
avg
can be determined
from F
avg
= F dt/t.
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
Example
The 15-Mg boxcar A is coasting at 1.5 m/s on the
horizontal track when it encounters a 12-mg tank B
coasting at 0.75 m/s toward it. If the cars meet and
couple together, determine (a) the speed of both
cars just after the coupling, and (b) the average
force between them if the coupling takes place in
0.8 s.
Part (a) Free-Body Diagram. We will consider
both cars as a single system. By inspection,
momentum is conserved in the x direction since the
coupling force F is internal to the system and will
therefore cancel out. It is assumed both cars, when
coupled, move at v
2
in the positive x direction.
Conservation of Linear Momentum.

=
=
+ = + +

s m v
v
v m m v m v m
B A B B A A
/ 5 . 0
) 27000 ( ) 75 . 0 )( 12000 ( ) 5 . 1 )( 15000 (
) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
2 1 1
( )
Part (b) The average (impulsive) coupling force
F
avg
, can be determined by applying the principle of
linear momentum to either one of the cars.
Free-Body Diagram.
Conservation of Momentum.

kN F
F
v m dt F v m
avg
avg
A A A
8 . 18
) 5 . 0 )( 15000 ( ) 8 . 0 ( ) 5 . 1 )( 15000 (
) (
2 1
=
=
= + +

}

( )
Example
The 600-kg cannon fires an 4-kg projectile with a
muzzle velocity of 450 m/s relative to the ground. If
firing takes place in 0.03 s, determine (a) the recoil
velocity of the cannon just after firing, and (b) the
average impulsive force acting on the projectile.
Part (a) Free-Body Diagram. We will consider
the projectile and cannon as a single system, since
the impulsive forces, F, between the cannon and
projectile are internal to the system and will
therefore cancel from the analysis.
During the time t = 0.03 s, the two recoil springs
which are attached to the support each exert a
non-impulsive force F
s
on the cannon. This is
because t is very short, so that during this time
the cannon only moves through a very small
distances.
Consequently, F
s
= ks 0, where k is the springs
stiffness. It may be consluded that momentum for
the system is conserved in the horizontal direction.
We assume that the cannon moves to the left,
while the projectile moves to the right after firing.
Conservation of Momentum.

=
+ = +
+ = + +

s m v
v
v m v m v m v m
c
c
p p c c p p c c
/ 3 ) (
) 450 )( 4 ( ) )( 600 ( 0 0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
2 2 1 1
( )
Part (b) The average impulsive force exerted by
the cannon on the projectile can be determined by
applying the principle of linear impulse and
momentum to the projectile.
Principle of Impulse and Momentum.
kN F
F
v m dt F v m
avg
avg
p p
0 . 60 ) 10 ( 60
) 450 )( 4 ( ) 03 . 0 ( 0
) ( ) (
3
2 1
= =
= +
= + +

}

( )
Example
The 350-Mg tugboat T is used to pull the 50-Mg
barge B with a rope R. If the barge is initially at rest
and the tugboat is coasting freely with a velocity of
(v
T
)
1
= 3 m/s while the rope is slack, determine the
velocity of the tugboat directly after the rope
become taut.
Free-Body Diagram. We will consider the entire
system. The impulsive force created between the
tugboat and the barge is internal to the system,
therefore momentum of the system is conserved
during the instant of towing.
Alternative procedure of drawing the systems
impulse and momentum diagrams is as shown
below
Conservation of Momentum. Noting that (v
B
)
2

= (v
T
)
2
=
+ = +
+ = +
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
s m v
v v
v m v m v m v m
T
T T
B B T T B B T T
/ 62 . 2 ) (
) )( 10 ( 50 ) )( 10 ( 350 0 ) 3 )( 10 )( 350 (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
3
2
3 3
2 2 1 1
This value represents the tugboats velocity just
after the towing impulse.
Example
An 800-kg rigid pile P is driven
into the ground using a 300-kk
hammer H. the hammer falls
from rest at a height y0 = 0.5 m
and strikes the top of the pile.
Determine the impulse which
the hammer imparts on the pile
if the pile is surrounded entirely
by loose sand so that after
striking, the hammer does not
rebound off the pile.
Conservation of Energy. The velocity at which
the hammer strikes the pile can be determined
using the conservation of energy equation applied
to the hammer.
s m v
v
y W v m y W v m
V T V T
H
H
H H H H H H
/ 13 . 3 ) (
0 ) )( 300 (
2
1
) 5 . 0 )( 81 . 9 ( 300 0
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1 0
2
0
1 1 0 0
=
+ = +
+ = +
+ = +
Free-Body Diagram. During the short
time occurring just before to just after
the collision, the weight of the hammer
and pile and the resistance force F
s
of
the sand are all non-impulsive. The
impulsive force R is internal to the
system and therefore cancels.
Consequently, momentum is conserved
in the vertical direction during this short
time.
Conservation of Momentum. Since the
hammer does not rebound off the pile just after the
collision, then (v
H
)
2
= (v
P
)
2
= v
2
s m v
v v
v m v m v m v m
p H p p H H
/ 854 . 0
800 300 0 ) 13 . 3 )( 300 (
) ( ) ( ) (
2
2 2
2 2 1 1
=
+ = +
+ = + + +
Principle of Impulse and Momentum. The
impulse which the pile imparts to the hammer can
now be determined since v
2
is known.
s N dt R
dt R
v m dt F v m
H
t
t
y H H
=
=
= + + +
}
}

}
683
) 854 . 0 )( 300 ( ) 13 . 3 )( 300 (
) ( ) (
2 1
2
1
Example
A boy having a mass of 40-kg stands on the back
of a 15-kg toboggan which is originally at rest. If he
walks to the front B and stops, determine the
distance the toboggan moves.
Free-Body Diagram. The
unknown frictional force of the
boys shoes on the bottom of the
toboggan can be excluded from the
analysis if the toboggan and the
boy on it are considered as a single
system. In this way the frictional
force F becomes internal and the
conservation of momentum applies
Conservation of Momentum. Since both the
initial and final momenta of the system are zero
(because initial and final velocities are zero), the
systems momentum must also be zero when the
boy is at some intermediate point between A and
B, thus
0 = +
+
t t b b
v m v m
( )
The 2 unknowns v
b
and v
t
represent the velocities
of the boy moving to the left and the toboggan
moving to the right. Both are measured from a fixed
inertial reference on the ground.
At any instant the position of point A on the
toboggan and the position of the boy must be
determined by integration. Since v = ds/dt, then
m
b
ds
b
+ m
t
ds
t
= 0
Assuming the initial position of point A to be at the
origin, then at the final position we have m
b
s
b
+
m
t
s
t
= 0. Since s
b
+ s
t
= 2 m,
m
m m
m
s
s m s m
t b
b
t
t t t b
45 . 1
15 40
) 40 ( 2 2
0 ) 2 (
=
+
=
+
=
= +
Impact
Impact occurs when two bodies collide with each
other during a very short period of time, causing
relatively large (impulsive) forces to be exerted
between the bodies.
There are two types of impact.
Central impact occurs when the direction of
motion of the mass centers of the two colliding
particles is along the line of impact.
Oblique impact occurs when one or both of the
particles is at an angle with the line of impact.
The line of impact passes through the mass
centers of the particles.
Impact
Central Impact. Consider the central impact of
two smooth particles A and B,
The particles have the initial momenta as shown.
Provided (v
A
)
1
> (v
B
)
1
, collision will eventually
occur.
Impact
During the collision the particles must be thought
of as deformable or non-rigid. The particles will
undergo a period of deformable such that they
exert an equal but opposite deformation impulse
P dt on each other.
Impact
Only at the instant of maximum deformation will
both particles move with a common velocity v,
since their relative motion is zero.
Impact
Afterward a period of restitution occurs, in which
case the particles will either return to their original
shape or remain permanently deformed. The equal
but opposite restitution impulse R dt pushes the
particle apart from one another. In reality, the
physical properties of any two bodies are such that
the deformation impulse is always greater that that
of restitution, i.e. P dt > R dt.
Impact
Just after the separation the particles will have the
final momenta, where (v
B
)
2
> (v
A
)
2
Impact
The ratio of the restitution impulse to the
deformation impulse is called the coefficient of
restitution.
The coefficient of restitution can be expressed in
terms of the particles initial and final velocities,
1 1
2 2
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
B A
A B
v v
v v
e

=
Impact
Coefficient of Restitution.
With reference to the case where the central
impact of two smooth particles A and B, it is seen
that the eqn for the coefficient of restitution states
that e is equal to the ratio of the relative velocity of
the particles separation just after impact (v
B
)
2

(v
A
)
2
, to the relative velocity of the particles just
before impact, (v
A
)
1
(v
B
)
1


e has a value between zero and one.

Impact
Elastic Impact.
If the collision between the two particles is
perfectly elastic (e = 1), the deformation impulse
(P dt) is equal and opposite to the restitution
impulse (R dt).
Plastic (inelastic) Impact.
There is no restitution impulse given to the
particles (R dt = 0), so that after collision both
particles couple or stick together and move with a
common velocity
Impact
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
(CENTRAL IMPACT)
The final velocities of the two smooth particles are
to be determined just after they are subjected to
direct central impact. Provided the coefficient of
restitution, the mass of each particle and each
particles initial velocity just before impact are
known, the solution to the problem can be obtained
using the following two equations:
The conservation of momentum applies to the
system of particles, mv
1
= mv
2

The coefficient of restitution relates the relative
velocities of the particles along the line of impact,
just before and just after collision.
When applying these two equations, the sense of
an unknown velocity can be assumed. If the
solution yields a negative magnitude, the velocity is
in the opposite sense.
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
(CENTRAL IMPACT)
Impact
Oblique Impact.
When oblique impact occurs between two smooth
particles, the particles move away from each other
with velocities having unknown directions and
unknown magnitudes.
Provided the initial velocities are known, four
unknown are present in the problem.
These unknown are represented either as (v
A
)
2
,
(v
B
)
2
,
2
and
2
, or as the x and y components of
the final velocities.
Impact
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
(OBLIQUE IMPACT)
If the y axis is established within the plane of
contact and the x axis along the line of impact, the
impulsive forces of deformation and restitution act
only in the x direction.
Resolving the velocity or momentum vectors into
components along the x and y axes, it is possible
to write four independent scalar equations in order
to determine (v
Ax
)
2
, (v
Ay
)
2
, (v
Bx
)
2
and (v
By
)
2

Momentum of the system is conserved along the
line of impact, x axis so that m(v
x
)
1
= m(v
x
)
2
.
The coefficient of restitution, e, relates the
relative-velocity components of the particles along
the line of impact (x axis).

PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
(OBLIQUE IMPACT)
Momentum of particle A is conserved along the y
axis, perpendicular to the line of impact, since no
impulse acts on particle A in this direction.
Momentum of particle B is conserved along the y
axis, perpendicular to the line of impact, since no
impulse acts on particle B in this direction.
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
(OBLIQUE IMPACT)
Example
The bag A, having a mass of 6 kg is released from
rest at the position = 0. After falling to = 90, is
strikes an 18 kg box B. If the coefficient of
restitution between the bag and the box is e = 0.5,
determine the velocities of the bag and box just
after impact and the loss of energy during collision.
Conservation of Energy. With the datum at =
0, we have
s m v
v
V T V T
A
A
/ 43 . 4 ) (
) 1 )( 81 . 9 ( 6 ) )( 6 (
2
1
0 0
1
2
1
1 1 0 0
=
= +
+ = +
Conservation of Momentum. After impact, we
will assume A and B travel to the left.
2 2
2 2
2 2 1 1
) ( 3 43 . 4 ) (
) ( 6 ) )( 18 ( ) 43 . 4 )( 6 ( 0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
B A
A B
A A B B A A B B
v v
v v
v m v m v m v m
=
+ = +
+ = +
+
( )
Conservation of Restitution. Realizing that
for separation to occur after collision (v
B
)
2
> (v
A
)
2
,
=
= =
=

=
+
s m v
s m s m v
v v
v v
v v
e
B
A
B A
B A
A B
/ 66 . 1 ) (
/ 554 . 0 / 554 . 0 ) (
215 . 2 ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2
2
2 2
1 1
2 2
( )
Solving the two equations
simultaneously,
Loss of Energy. Applying the principle of wrk
and energy to the bag and box just before and after
collision, we have
J
U
T T U
15 . 33
) 33 . 4 )( 6 (
2
1
) 544 . 0 )( 6 (
2
1
) 66 . 1 )( 18 (
2
1
2 2 2
2 1
1 2 2 1
=
(

+ =
=

Example
The ball B has a mass of 1.5 kg and is suspended
from the ceiling by a 1 m long elastic cord. If the
cord is stretched downward 0.25 m and the ball is
released from rest, determine how far the cord
stretched after the ball rebounded from the ceiling.
k = 800 N/m, e = 0.8
Conservation of Energy. With the datum as
shown, realizing that initially y = y
0
= (1 + 0.25) m =
1.25 m, we have
| =
= + +
+ = +
+ = +
s m v
v
v m ks y W v m
V T V T
B
B
B B B
/ 97 . 2 ) (
) )( 5 . 1 (
2
1
) 25 . 0 )( 800 (
2
1
) 25 . 1 )( 81 . 9 ( 5 . 1 0
0 ) (
2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
0
2
0
1 1 0 0
Conservation of Restitution.
+ = =


=

=
+
s m s m v
v
v v
v v
e
B
B
B A
A B
/ 37 . 2 / 37 . 2 ) (
97 . 2 0
0 ) (
8 . 0
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2
2
1 1
2 2 ( )
Conservation of Energy. The maximum stretch
s3 in the cord may be determined by applying the
conservation of energy equation to the ball just
after the collision. Assuming that y = y
3
= (1 + s
3
) m
0 94 . 18 72 . 14 400
) 800 (
2
1
) 1 )( 5 . 1 ( 81 . 9 0 ) 37 . 2 )( 5 . 1 (
2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
0 ) (
2
1
3
2
3
2
3 3
2
2
3 3
2
3
2
2
3 3 2 2
=
+ + =
+ = +
+ = +
s s
s s
ks y W v m v m
V T V T
B B B
Solving the quadratic equation for the positive root
yields,
m s 237 . 0
3
=
Example
Two smooth disks A and B, having mass of 1 kg
and 2 kg respectively, collide with the velocities
shown. If the coefficient of restitution for the disks
is e = 0.75, determine the x and y components of
the final velocity of each disk just after collision.
Solution
Resolving each of the initial velocities into x and y
components, we have
s m v
s m v
s m v
s m v
By
Bx
Ay
Ax
/ 707 . 0 45 sin 1 ) (
/ 707 . 0 45 cos 1 ) (
/ 50 . 1 30 sin 3 ) (
/ 60 . 2 30 cos 3 ) (
1
1
1
1
= =
= =
= =
= =

The four unknown velocity components after


collision are assumed to act in the positive
directions. Since the impact occurs only in the x
direction (line of impact), the conservation of
momentum for both disks can be applied in this
direction.
Conservation of x Momentum.
18 . 1 ) ( 2 ) (
) ( 2 ) ( 1 ) 707 . 0 ( 2 ) 60 . 2 ( 1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2
2 2
2 2 1 1
= +
+ = +
+ = +
+
Bx Ax
Bx Ax
Bx B Ax A Bx B Ax A
v v
v v
v m v m v m v m
( )
Conservation of (x) Restitution. Both disks are
assumed to have components of velocity in the +x
direction after collision,
48 . 2 ) ( ) (
) 07 . 0 ( 60 . 2
) ( ) (
75 . 0
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2 2
2 2
1 1
2 2
=

=
+
Ax Bx
Ax Bx
Bx Ax
Ax Bx
v v
v v
v v
v v
e
( )
Solving the two simultaneous equations,
=
= =
s m v
s m s m v
Bx
Ax
/ 22 . 1 ) (
/ 26 . 1 / 26 . 1 ) (
2
2
Conservation of y Momentum. The
momentum of each disk is conserved in the y
direction (plane of contact), since the disks are
smooth and therefore no external impulse acts in
this direction.
+ = =
= | +
| =
= | +
s m s m v
v m v m
s m v
v m v m
By
By B By B
Ay
Ay A Ay A
/ 707 . 0 / 707 . 0 ) (
) ( ) (
/ 5 . 1 ) (
) ( ) (
2
2 1
2
2 1
( )
( )
Angular Momentum
The angular momentum, H
O
, of a particle about
point O is defined as the moment of the particles
linear momentum about O.
Scalar Formulation.
If a particle is moving along a
curve lying in the x-y plane, the
angular momentum at any instant
can be determine about point O by
using a scalar formulation.
The magnitude of H
O
is
) )( ( ) ( mv d H
z O
=
d is the moment arm or perpendicular distance
from O to the line of action of mv.
Common for (H
O
)
z
is kg.m
2
/s
The direction of H
O
is defined by the right-hand
rule.
Angular Momentum
Vector Formulation.
If the particle is moving along a
space curve, the vector cross
product can be used to determine
the angular momentum about O.
In this case,
v r H m
O
=
r denotes a position vector drawn from point O to
the particle P. H
O
is perpendicular to the shaded
plane containing r and mv.
Angular Momentum
To evaluate the cross product, r and mv should
be expressed in terms of their Cartesian
components, so that the angular momentum is
determined by evaluating the determinant:
z y x
z y x O
mv mv mv
r r r
k j i
H =
Angular Momentum
Relation Between Moment of a Force
and Angular Momentum
The moments about Point O of all forces acting
on the particle may by related to the particles
angular momentum by using the equation of
motion. If the mass of the particle is constant, we
may write
v F m =

v r F r M m
O
= =

The moments of the forces about point O can be
obtained by performing a cross-product
multiplication of each side of this equation by the
position vector r, which is measured in the x, y, z
inertial frame of reference,
The derivation of r x mv can be written as
v r v r v r H

m m m
dt
d
O
+ = = ) (
Relation Between Moment of a Force
and Angular Momentum
0 ) ( = = r r v r m m Since the equation becomes

=
O O
H M

This equation states that the resultant momentum
about point O of all the forces acting on the particle
is equal to the time rate of change of the particles
angular momentum about point O.
Relation Between Moment of a Force
and Angular Momentum
The result is also similar to
G

F
Here G = mv, so the resultant force acting on the
particle is equal to the time rate of change of the
particles linear momentum.
Relation Between Moment of a Force
and Angular Momentum
Example
The box has a mass m and is traveling down the
smooth circular ramp such that when it is at the
angle it is a speed v. Determine its angular
momentum about point O at this instant and the
rate of increase in its speed, i.e., a
t
.
Solution
Since v is tangent to the path, the angular
momentum is
rmv H
O
=
From the free-body diagram of the block,
it is seen that only the weight W = mg
contributes a moment about O
) ( ) sin ( ; rmv
dt
d
r mg H M
O O
= = +

Example
Since r and m are constant,
u
u
sin
sin
g
dt
dv
dt
dv
rm mgr
=
=
Angular Impulse and Momentum
Principles
Principle of Angular Impulse and Momentum
We have M
O
dt = dH
O
and integrated, assuming
at time t = t
1
, H
O
= (H
O
)
1
and time t = t
2
, H
O
= (H
O
)
2

2 1
1 2
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2
1
2
1
O
t
t
O O
O O
t
t
O
dt
dt
H M H
H H M
= +
=

}
or
This equation is referred to as the principle of
angular impulse and momentum.
The initial and final angular momenta (H
O
)
1
and
(H
O
)
2
are defined as the moment of the linear
momentum of the particle (H
O
= r x mv) at the
instant t
1
and t
2
respectively.
The second term on the left side, M
O
dt, is
called the angular impulse. It is determined by
integrating, w.r.t time, the moments of all forces
acting on the particle over the time period t
1
to t
2
.
Angular Impulse and Momentum
Principles
Since the moment of a force about point O is M
O

= r x F, the angular impulse may be expressed in
vector form as
} }
= =
2
1
2
1
) (
t
t
t
t
O
dt dt F r M
Angular impulse
The principle of angular impulse and momentum
for a system of particles may be written as

}

= +
2 1
) ( ) (
2
1
O
t
t
O O
dt H M H
Angular Impulse and Momentum
Principles
Vector Formulation
Using impulse and momentum principles, it is
possible to write which define the particles motion,
2 1
2
1
v F v m dt m
t
t
= +

}
2 1
) ( ) (
2
1
O
t
t
O O
dt H M H = +

}
Angular Impulse and Momentum
Principles
Scalar Formulation
The above equations may be expressed in x, y, z
component form. If the particle is confined to move
in the x-y plane, three independent equations may
be written to express the motion,
2 1
) ( ) (
2
1
x
t
t
x x
v m dt F v m = +

}
2 1
) ( ) (
2
1
O
t
t
O O
H dt M H = +

}
2 1
) ( ) (
2
1
y
t
t
y y
v m dt F v m = +

}
Angular Impulse and Momentum
Principles
Conservation of Angular Momentum
When the angular impulse acting on a particle are
all zero during the time t
1
to t
2
, it may be written as
2 1
) ( ) (
O O
H H =
This equation is known as the conservation of
angular momentum. It states that from t1 to t2 the
particles angular momentum remain constant.
If no external impulse is applied to the particle,
both linear and angular momentum is conserved.
Angular Impulse and Momentum
Principles
In some cases, the particles angular momentum
will be conserved and linear momentum may not.
This occurs when the particle is subjected only to
a central force.
Angular Impulse and Momentum
Principles
The impulsive central force F is always directed
toward point O as the particle moves along the
path.
The angular impulse (moment) created by F
about z axis passing through point O is always
zero, and therefore angular momentum of the
particle is conserved about this axis.
The conservation of angular momentum for a
system of particles,
2
1
) ( ) (

=
O O
H H
Angular Impulse and Momentum
Principles
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
Free-Body Diagram
Draw the particles FBD in order to determine any
axis about which angular momentum is conserved.
For this to occur, the moments of the forces (or
impulse) must be parallel or pass through the axis
so as to create zero moment throughout the time
period t
1
to t
2
.
The direction and sense of the particles initial and
final velocities should be established
Momentum Equations.
Apply the principle of angular impulse and
momentum,
2 1
) ( ) (
2
1
O
t
t
O O
dt H M H = +

}
Or if appropriate, apply the conservation of
angular momentum,
2 1
) ( ) (
O O
H H =
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
Example
The 5 kg block rests on the smooth horizontal
plate. It is attached at A to a slender rod of
negligible mass. The rod is attached to a ball-and-
socket join at B. If the moment M = (3t) N.m where
t is in seconds, is applied to the rod and a
horizontal force P = 10 N is applied to the block,
determine the speed of the block in 4 s starting
from rest.
Free-Body Diagram. If we consider the system of
both rod and block, then the resultant force
reaction F
B
at the ball-and-socket can be
eliminated from the analysis by applying principle
of angular impulse and momentum about the z
axis. If this is done, the angular impulses created
by the weight and normal reaction N
A
are also
eliminated, since they act parallel to z axis and
therefore create zero moment about this axis.
Principle of Angular Impulse and Momentum.
s m v
v dt t
H t P r dt M H
H dt M H
A
A
z BA
t
t
z
z
t
t
z z
/ 20 ) (
) 4 . 0 ( ) ( 5 ) 4 )( 10 )( 4 . 0 ( 3 0
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2
2
4
0
2 1
2 1
2
1
2
1
=
= + +
= A + +
= +
}
}

}
Example
The 0.4 kg ball B is attached to a cord which passes
through a hole at A in a smooth table. When the ball
is r
1
= 0.5 m from the hole, it is rotating around in a
circle such that its speed is v
1
= 1.2 m/s. By applying
a force F the cord is pulled downward through the
hole with a constant speed v
c
= 2 m/s. Determine (a)
the speed of the ball at the instant it is r
2
= 0.2 m
from the hole, and (b) the amount of work done by F
in shortening the radial distance from r
1
to r
2
.
Part (a) Free-Body Diagram. As the ball
moves from r
1
to r
2
, the cord force F on the ball
always passes through the z axis, and the weight
and N
B
are parallel to it. Hence the moments, or
angular impulses created by these forces, are all
zero about this axis. Therefore, the conservation of
angular momentum applies about the z axis.
Conservation of Angular Momentum. The balls
velocity v
2
is resolved into two components. The
radial component, 2 m/s, is known; however, it
produces zero angular momentum about the z axis.
Thus
s m v
v
v m r v m r
B B
/ 3
) 4 . 0 )( 2 . 0 ( ) 2 . 1 )( 4 . 0 )( 5 . 0 (
2
2
2 2 1 1
2 1
=
'
'
=
'
=
= H H
The speed of the ball is thus
s m
v
/ 606 . 3
) 2 ( ) 0 . 3 (
2 2
2
=
+ =
Part (b). The only force that does work on the
ball is F. The initial and final kinetic energies of the
ball can be determine so that from the principle of
work and energy,
J U
U
T U T
F
F
313 . 2
) 606 . 3 )( 4 . 0 (
2
1
) 2 . 1 )( 4 . 0 (
2
1
2 2
2 2 1 1
=
= +
= +

Example
The 2 kg disk rests on a smooth horizontal surface
and is attached to an elastic cord that has a stiffness
k
c
= 20 N/m and is initially unstretched. If the disk is
given a velocity (v
D
)1 = 1.5 m/s, perpendicular to the
cord, determine the rate at which the cord is being
stretched and the speed of the disk at the instant the
cord is stretched 0.2 m.
Free-Body Diagram. After the disk has been
launched, it slides along the path. By inspection,
angular momentum about point O is conserved,
since none of the forces produce an angular
impulse about this axis. Also, when the distance is
0.7 m, only the component (v
D
)
2
produces angular
momentum of the disk about O.
Conservation of Angular Momentum. The
component (v
D
)
2
can be obtained by applying the
conservation of angular momentum about O
s m v
v
v m r v m r
D
D
D D D D
O O
/ 07 . 1 ) (
) )( 2 )( 7 . 0 ( ) 5 . 1 )( 2 )( 5 . 0 (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2
2
2 2 1 1
2 1
=
'
'
= +
'
=
= H H
Conservation of Energy. Applying the
conservation of energy equation at the point where
the disk was launched and at the point where the
cord is stretched 0.2 m.
s m v
v
V T V T
D
D
/ 36 . 1 ) (
) 2 . 0 )( 20 (
2
1
) )( 2 (
2
1
0 ) 5 . 1 )( 2 (
2
1
2
2 2
2
2
2 2 1 1
=
+ = +
+ = +
Having determine (v
D
)
2
and its component (v
D
)
2
,
the rate of stretch of the cord (v
D
)
2
is determined
from the Pythagorean theorem.
s m
v v v
D D D
/ 838 . 0
) 07 . 1 ( ) 36 . 1 (
) ( ) ( ) (
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
=
=
'
=
' '
CHAPTER REVIEW
Impulse
An impulse that acts on the particle is defined by
}
= dt F I
Graphically this represents the area under the F-
t diagram. If the force is constant, then the
impulse becomes
) (
1 2
t t
c
= F I
Principle of Impulse and Momentum
When the equation of motion, F =ma, and the
kinematic equation, a = dv/dt, are combined, we
obtain the principle of impulse and momentum.
2 1
2
1
v F v m dt m
t
t
= +

}
The initial momentum of the particle, mv
1
, plus all
of the impulses that are applied to the particle
during the time t
1
to t
2
, F dt, equal the final
momentum mv
2
of the particle.
CHAPTER REVIEW
This is a vector equation that can be resolved
into components and is used to solve problems
that involve force, velocity and time.
For application, the free-body diagram should be
drawn in order to account for all the impulses that
act on the particle.
CHAPTER REVIEW
Conservation of Linear Momentum
If the principle of impulse and momentum is
applied to the system of particles, then the
collisions between the particles produce internal
impulse that are equal, opposite and collinear, and
therefore cancel out from the equation.
If an external impulse is small, that is, the force is
small and the time is short, then the impulse can be
classified as non-impulsive and can be neglected.
CHAPTER REVIEW
Consequently, momentum for the system of
particles is conserved, and so
( ) ( )

=
2 1
i i
m m v v
This equation is useful for finding the final
velocity of a particle when internal impulses are
exerted between two particles.
If the internal impulse is to be determined, then
one of the particles is isolated and the principle of
impulse and momentum is applied to this system.
CHAPTER REVIEW
Impact
When two particles collide (A and B), the internal
impulse between them is equal, opposite, and
collinear.
Consequently, the conversation of momentum for
this system applies along the line of impact.

If the final velocities are unknown, a second
equation is needed for solution, and we use the
coefficient of restitution, e.
CHAPTER REVIEW
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 1 1
B B A A B B A A
v m v m v m v m + = +
1 1
2 2
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
B A
A B
v v
v v
e

=
If the collision is elastic, no energy is lost and e =
1. For a plastic collision e = 0
If the impact is oblique, then conservation of
momentum for the system and the coefficient of
restitution equation apply along the line of impact.
Conservation of momentum for each particle
applies perpendicular to this line.
CHAPTER REVIEW
Principle of Angular Impulse and Momentum
The momentum of the linear momentum about an
axis (z) is called the angular momentum. Its
magnitude is
) )( ( ) ( mv d H
z O
=
In three dimensions, the cross product is used
v r H m
O
=
CHAPTER REVIEW
The principle of angular impulse and momentum
is derived from taking moments of the equation of
motion about inertial axis, using a = dv/dt. The
result is
2 1
) ( ) (
2
1
O
t
t
O O
dt H M H = +

}
This equation is used to eliminate unknown
impulses by summing the moments about an axis
through which the lines of action of these impulses
produce no moment.
CHAPTER REVIEW