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Embedded Systems

Real Time Embedded System


Real Time
Timing generated for our requirements

Embedded
Number of systems co exist to perform a specific function in real time

Characteristics of RTES
Singled functioned Tightly constrained Reactive and Real time

Embedded system Architecture

Common Examples of Embedded Systems


Consumer Electronics

Home Appliance

Office Automation

Business equipment

Automobile

Mobile Phone
A circuit board Antenna Microphone Speaker LCD Keyboard Battery

Block Diagram

Components of an Embedded System


Microprocessor Memory Input Output Devices and Interfaces Software

Constraints in Developing Embedded Systems


Design Issues Design Metrics
NRE Cost Unit Cost Size Performance Power Consumption Flexibility Time to prototype Time to market Maintainability Correctness

Design Methodology
System Level Design Sub system Design Process Level Design Task Level Design

hierarchical Components of embedded system

Structure of an Embedded system

Processors
General purpose processors Microcontrollers Digital signal processors

Architecture of general purpose processor


Pentium 4 8085

Architecture of a microcontroller
8051 AVR Microcon trollers

Architecture of Digital Signal Processor


Harvard Architecture

Difference between Microcontroller and Microprocessor


Microcontroller On a single chip Small in size Microprocessor External RAM, ROM, decoder, A/D converters are separate Big in size

Less expensive
Non flexible Less time 8051

Expensive
Flexible High Development Time 8086

Typical microcontroller system

Typical microprocessor system

Characteristics of DSP
Signal processing applications Harvard architecture Two or four memory accesses per cycle Dedicated hardware perform all arithmetic operations in one cycle Complex instructions Multiple operations per instruction Dedicated address generation units Specialized addressing Interrupts disabled during some operations

Characteristics of general purpose processor


Von Neumann Architecture 1 access per cycle Most operations in more than one cycle One operation per instruction No separate address generation units General purpose addressing modes Interrupts rarely disabled

Input Output Devices and interface chips

Memory
Processor memory Internal on chip memory Primary memory Cache memory Secondary memory

Operations on memory
Memory Read operation Memory write operation

Data Storage
M = words N= bits M X N = word memory K = log2(M); No. of address lines

Memory Specifications
Power Consumption Write ability
High end(RAM) Middle range(FLASH, EEPROM) Lower range(Programmer) Low end (ROM) High end(ROM) Middle range(NVRAM) Lower range(SRAM) Low end(DRAM)

Storage permanence

ROM (Read Only Memory)


NonVolatile Memory Store software program

Masked programmed ROM


Connections Programmed at fabrication Stores data forever Connections never change unless damaged

OTP ROM
Programmed after manufacture Provides files of desired content Connection is like a fuse and blows when connection should not exist Very low ability to write

EPROM(Erasable Programmable ROM )


Better ability to write Reduced storage permanence (10 yrs) Used in design development When exposes to UV erases everything

EEPROM
Erased by using higher than normal voltage Can program and erase individual words Same characteristics as that of EPROM Expensive

Flash Memory
Extension of EEPROM Large blocks of memory can be erased at once Used in embedded systems for storing large data items in non volatile memory

RAM(Random Access Memory)


Volatile memory Read and written easily Internal structure complex than ROM
A word consists of several memory cells Each IP/OP line connected to each cell Rd/Wr connected to every cell

SRAM (static RAM)


Memory cells uses flip flops Holds data as long as power supplies

DRAM
Memory cells uses transistors and capacitors Compact than SRAM Slower

Memory Hierarchy

Digital signal processing

Signal Processing

A to D and D to A process

Signal Conditioning
Provide Distinct enhancements to both the performance and accuracy of data acquisition system

Amplification
Increases the voltage level to better match the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) range, thus increasing the measurement resolution and sensitivity. In addition, using external signal conditioners located closer to the signal source, or transducer, improves the measurement signal-to-noise ratio by magnifying the voltage level before it is affected by environmental noise.

Attenuation
Attenuation, the opposite of amplification, is necessary when voltages to be digitized are beyond the ADC range. This form of signal conditioning decreases the input signal amplitude so that the conditioned signal is within ADC range. Attenuation is typically necessary when measuring voltages that are more than 10 V.

Isolation
Isolated signal conditioning devices pass the signal from its source to the measurement device without a physical connection by using transformer, optical, or capacitive coupling techniques. In addition to breaking ground loops, isolation blocks high-voltage surges and rejects high common-mode voltage and thus protects both the operators and expensive measurement equipment.

Filtering
Filters reject unwanted noise within a certain frequency range. Oftentimes, low-pass filters are used to block out high-frequency noise in electrical measurements, such as 60 Hz power. Another common use for filtering is to prevent aliasing from high-frequency signals. This can be done by using an anti-aliasing filter to attenuate signals above the Nyquist frequency

Linearization
Linearization is necessary when sensors produce voltage signals that are not linearly related to the physical measurement. Linearization is the process of interpreting the signal from the sensor and can be done either with signal conditioning or through software. Thermocouples are the classic example of a sensor that requires linearization.

Cold-Junction Compensation
Cold-junction compensation (CJC) is a technology required for accurate thermocouple measurements. Thermocouples measure temperature as the difference in voltage between two dissimilar metals. Based on this concept, another voltage is generated at the connection between the thermocouple and terminal of your data acquisition device. CJC improves your measurement accuracy by providing the temperature at this junction and applying the appropriate correction.

Common signal conditioning for different sensors

Bridge Completion