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Three basic components:
• Heart - serves as pump that establishes the •
pressure gradient needed for blood to flow to tissues Blood - transport medium within which materials being transported are dissolved or suspended Blood vessels - passageways through which blood is distributed from heart to all parts of body and back to heart
Types Of Blood Vessels
• Arteries – carry blood away from the heart • Capillaries – smallest blood vessels • The site of exchange of molecules between blood and tissue fluid • Veins – carry blood toward the heart
arteries → arterioles → capillaries → venules → veins
Functions Of Blood Vessels
• • •
Arteries - carry blood away from heart Arterioles - small arteries that deliver blood to
Capillaries – thin walled vessels allow for
exchange between blood and tissue cells
Venules - collect and drain blood into veins Veins - return blood to heart
central blood-filled space of a vessel • • Contraction – vasoconstriction Relaxation – vasodilation Structure Of Blood Vessels .• Composed of three layers (tunics) • Tunica intima – composed of simple squamous epithelium • Tunica media – sheets of smooth muscle • Tunica externa – composed of connective tissue • Lumen .
Structural Differences • • • • Arteries have thicker tunica media and narrower lumens Veins have thicker tunica externa Arteries have more elastic and collagen fibers Veins have larger lumens and valves .
5 cm to 1 cm Includes the aorta and its major branches Sometimes called conducting arteries High elastin content dampens surge of blood pressure .Types Of Arteries • Elastic arteries – the largest arteries • • • • Diameters range from 2.
3 mm Includes most named arteries Tunica media is thick Unique features • Internal and external elastic laminae .Types Of Arteries • Muscular (distributing) arteries • • • • • Lie distal to elastic arteries Diameters range from 1 cm to 0.
• Types Of Arteries Arterioles • • • • Smallest arteries Diameters range from 0.3 mm to 10 µm Larger arterioles possess all three tunics Diameter of arterioles controlled by: • • Local factors in the tissues Sympathetic nervous system .
• Smallest blood vessels • Diameter from 8–10 µm • Red blood cells pass through single file • Endothelial cells – held together by tight junctions and desmosomes • Routes into and out of capillaries • Direct diffusion • Through intercellular clefts .gaps of unjoined membrane where • small molecules can enter and exit Through fenestrations .pores Capillaries .
carbon dioxide leaves • Small intestines – receive digested nutrients • Endocrine glands – pick up hormones • Kidneys – removal of nitrogenous wastes • • Tendons and ligaments – poorly vascularized Epithelia and cartilage – avascular. receive nutrients from nearby CT .Capillaries • Site-specific functions of capillaries • Lungs – oxygen enters blood.
Capillaries • Three types of capillary • Continuous – most common • Fenestrated – have pores • Sinusoids .
Sinusoids • Wide. leaky capillaries found in some organs • Usually fenestrated • Have large diameters • Intercellular clefts are wide open • Occur in bone marrow. liver. spleen and lymphoid tissue .
Capillary Beds • An interconnected network of vessels running through tissues • Consists of: • Collateral arteries feeding an arteriole • Metarterioles • Arteriovenous anastomoses • Capillaries • Venules .
regulate the flow of blood to tissues .Capillary Beds • Precapillary sphincters .
Veins • • • Conduct blood from capillaries toward the heart Blood pressure is much lower than in arteries Smallest veins – called venules • Diameters from 8 – 100 µm • Smallest venules – called postcapillary venules • Venules join to form veins .
which offer little resistance to flow • Valves (resembling semilunar heart valves). veins have special adaptations • Large-diameter lumens.Role Of Veins • To return blood to the heart. which prevent backflow of • blood Skeletal muscle pump .muscles press against thin-walled veins .
large artery that branches to left and right pulmonary arteries Pulmonary Arteries : take the blood to the lung where oxygen is picked up and CO2 is left off Pulmonary Veins: blood returns to the heart via four pulmonary veins that go to the left atrium .Pulmonary Circulation • Consists of blood vessels that take the blood to and from the lungs for the purpose of gas exchange • • • Pulmonary Trunk: oxygen-poor blood leaves the right ventricle via the pulmonary trunk.
Systemic Circulation • Consists of blood vessels that extend to and from the heart delivers oxygen and nutrients to body tissues picks up CO2 and waste products .
The Aorta And Vena Cava • • Ascending aorta – arises from the left ventricle branches to form coronary arteries Aortic arch – lies posterior to the manubrium branches to form • Brachiocephalic trunk • Left common carotid • Left subclavian arteries Descending aorta – continues from the aortic arch • Thoracic aorta – in the region of T5–T12 • Abdominal aorta – ends at L4 • Divides into right and left common iliac arteries • • Superior/Inferior vena cava returns blood from the systemic veins to the heart .
The Hepatic Portal System • • • A specialized part of the vascular circuit Picks up digested nutrients Delivers nutrients to the liver for processing .
Veins Of The Hepatic Portal System Hepatic veins Liver Hepatic portal vein Gastric veins Spleen Inferior vena cava Splenic vein Inferior mesenteric vein Superior mesenteric vein Small intestine Large intestine Rectum .
and anterior communicating arteries Anterior Cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) • Anterior communicating artery Middle cerebral artery Internal carotid artery • Anterior cerebral artery • Posterior communicating artery • Posterior cerebral artery Basilar artery Vertebral artery Posterior (c) . posterior communicating arteries. anterior cerebral arteries.Cerebral Arterial Circle (Circle Of Willis) • • “Circle” equalizes blood pressure in the brain and can provide alternative channels if one vessel becomes blocked The circle is formed from : posterior cerebral arteries. internal carotid arteries.
Arteries Of The Right Upper Limb And Thorax Vertebral artery Common carotid arteries Right subclavian artery Left subclavian artery Left axillary artery Brachiocephalic trunk Suprascapular artery Axillary artery Brachial artery Anterior intercostal artery Radial artery Ulnar artery Descending aorta (b) .
Right Aspect Internal carotid artery External carotid artery Common carotid artery Subclavian artery Axillary artery (a) Brachiocephalic trunk Internal thoracic artery .Arteries Of The Head And Neck.
Major Branches Of The Abdominal Aorta Diaphragm Adrenal gland Celiac trunk Kidney Suprarenal artery Renal artery Superior mesenteric artery Gonadal artery Abdominal aorta Inferior mesenteric artery Common iliac artery .
The Celiac Trunk And Its Main Branches Liver Inferior vena cava Celiac trunk Left gastric artery Common hepatic artery Right gastric artery Splenic artery Spleen Abdominal aorta (b) Superior mesenteric artery .
Arteries Of The Right Pelvis And Lower Limb Common iliac artery Internal iliac artery External iliac artery Popliteal artery Anterior tibial artery Femoral artery Posterior tibial artery Fibular artery Popliteal artery Anterior tibial artery Posterior tibial artery Fibular artery (b) Posterior view (a) Anterior view .
Flow Chart Summarizing Main Systemic Arteries Figure 19.17 .
Systemic Veins • • • • Three major veins enter the right atrium Superficial veins lie just beneath the skin Multivein bundles – venous plexuses Unusual patterns of venous drainage • Dural sinuses • Hepatic portal system .
Venae Cavae and Tributaries • • • Superior vena cava • Returns blood from body regions superior to the diaphragm Inferior vena cava • Returns blood from body regions inferior to the diaphragm Superior and inferior vena cava • Join the right atrium .
Major veins of the systemic circulation. Dural sinuses External jugular vein Vertebral vein Internal jugular vein Superior vena cava Axillary vein Great cardiac vein Hepatic veins Hepatic portal vein Superior mesenteric vein Inferior vena cava Ulnar vein Radial vein Digital veins Common iliac vein External iliac vein Femoral vein Great saphenous vein Popliteal vein Posterior tibial vein Anterior tibial vein Fibular vein Subclavian vein Right and left brachiocephalic veins Cephalic vein Brachial vein Basilic vein Splenic vein Median cubital vein Renal vein Inferior mesenteric vein Internal iliac vein .
Dural Sinuses In The Cranium Superior sagittal sinus Falx cerebri Inferior sagittal sinus Straight sinus Cavernous sinus Junction of sinuses Transverse sinuses Sigmoid sinus Jugular foramen Right internal jugular vein (b) .
Veins of the head and Neck Ophthalmic vein Superficial temporal vein Facial vein Occipital vein Posterior auricular vein External jugular vein Vertebral vein Internal jugular vein Superior and middle thyroid veins Brachiocephalic vein Subclavian vein Superior vena cava (a) .
Veins Of The Right Upper Limb And Thorax Wall Right subclavian vein Axillary vein Brachial vein Cephalic vein Basilic vein Internal jugular vein External jugular vein Brachiocephalic veins Left subclavian vein Superior vena cava Azygos vein Accessory hemiazygos vein Hemiazygos vein Posterior intercostals Inferior vena cava Ascending lumbar vein Median vein of the forearm Basilic vein Ulnar vein Radial vein Deep palmar venous arch Superficial palmar venous arch Digital veins (a) Median cubital vein Cephalic vein .
22 .Antecubital Fossa • • Form anastomese frequently Median cubital vein is used to obtain blood or administer IV fluids Figure 19.
Veins Of The Right Upper Limb And Thorax Wall Brachiocephalic veins Superior vena cava 1 2 3 4 5 6 Left superior intercostal vein Azygos vein Accessory hemiazygos vein Hemiazygos vein Intercostal veins 7 8 9 10 11 12 Intercostal veins Ascending lumbar vein Renal vein Inferior vena cava (b) .
Veins of the Abdomen • • • • • Lumbar veins Gonadal (testicular or ovarian) veins Renal veins Suprarenal veins Hepatic veins .
Tributaries Of The Inferior Vena Cava Hepatic veins Inferior vena cava Right suprarenal vein Inferior phrenic vein Left suprarenal vein Renal veins Left ascending lumbar vein Lumbar veins Left gonadal vein Common iliac vein Right gonadal vein External iliac vein Internal iliac vein .
Dissection of the posterior abdominal wall Right Left Diaphragm Hepatic veins Inferior vena cava Renal veins Abdominal aorta Common iliac veins .
Veins of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs • Deep veins • Share the name of the accompanying artery • Superficial veins • Great saphenous vein empties into the femoral • vein Small saphenous vein empties into the popliteal vein .
Veins Of The Right Lower Limb And Pelvis Common iliac vein Internal iliac vein External iliac vein Inguinal ligament Femoral vein Great saphenous vein (superficial) Great saphenous vein Popliteal vein Fibular (peroneal) vein Anterior tibial vein Dorsalis pedis vein Dorsal venous arch Metatarsal veins (a) (b) Popliteal vein Anterior tibial vein Fibular (peroneal) vein Small saphenous vein (superficial) Posterior tibial vein Plantar veins Plantar arch Digital veins .
External jugular R. head. axillary R. lower limb Veins of R. atrium of heart R.Flowchart Summarizing The Main Veins Veins of R. brachiocephalic R. suprarenal (L. renal vein) – adrenal glands R. common iliac – pelvis and R. side of head and L. brachiocephalic – R. lower limb (a) . renal veins – kidneys Lumbar veins (several pairs) – posterior abdominal wall L. renal vein) – testis or ovary R. upper limb Azygos system – drains much of thorax Superior vena cava – runs from union of brachiocephalic veins behind manubrium to R. suprarenal drains into L. and R. hepatic veins – liver L. atrium of heart Diaphragm Inferior vena cava – runs from junction of common iliac veins at L5 to R. and upper limb R. upper limb R. subclavian – R. common iliac – pelvis and L. neck. side of head and R. lower limb Veins of L. gonadal (L. lower limb L. internal jugular – dural sinuses of the brain Same as R. vertebral Intracranial – superficial – cervical spinal dural sinuses head and neck cord and vertebrae R. atrium R. and R. gonadal drains into L. brachiocephalic – L. upper limb L.