Dr. Christopher Shamburg New Jersey City University 2013 cshamburg@njcu.edu http://web.njcu.edu/faculty/cshamburg/

Driving Forces: Vocational-Technical Education in the Information Age

40 years ago….

30 years ago…


100 years ago…

Legal Immigration to the United States Immigration 1820-1920

1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 600,000


0 1880
1820 1824 1828 1832 1836 1840 1844 1848 1852 1856 1860 1864 1868 1872 1876 1884 1888 1892 1896 1900 1904 1908 1912 1916 1920

Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics, Yearbook of Immigration Statistics (various years). Available at http://www.dhs.gov/files/statistics/publications/yearbook.shtm.)


Efficiency and Industrialization

Occupations that typically need postsecondary education for entry are projected to grow faster than average… while those requiring a high school diploma will experience the slowest growth over the 2010–20 timeframe.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Overview of 2010-2020 Projections, 2012.


1991: SCANS Report


研究数据显示,在2010-2020年这段时间内,需要职业学校教育(中学后) 的职位发展的比需要高中教育的职位更快。

Equality in Education: Moral and Economic Factors

Boy with ADHD Girl with cognitive impairment

Rephrasing a new term so all kids can understand it better Using overhead so he can write in color and improve handwriting so all kids can understand him better. Visually impaired and uses audio books

Universal Design

Universal Design for Learning 2010 US Educational Technology Plan
美国总统奥巴马曾大胆的预测美国的 研究生比率在2020年将领先全世界 … 在这个计划中的学习的模式被要求对 不同年龄层次的学习者的激励和个人 学习经验的巩固… 同时也要求借助国立艺术,科技组织 和通过设计进行学习的理念得以开展, 激励并启发具有不同背景,语言,甚 至障碍的学生去获得成功 .

• Universal— give access to as many students as possible • Design— planning and creating activities, environments, and experiences • Learning— growth in thoughts and behaviors


•教师通过不同的方式传递 信息 •学生通过不同的形式展示 他们所学到的东西 •用多种方法培养学生兴趣 并激励他们

• www.ULDcenter.org
Multiple Means of Representation
1. Options for Perception 2. Options for Language, Expression and Symbols 3. Options for Comprehension

UDL Guidelines
Multiple Means for Action and Expression
4. Options for Physical Action 5. Options for Expression and Communication. 6. Options for Executive Function

Multiple Means of Engagement
7. Options for Recruiting Interest 8. Options for Sustaining Effort and Persistence 9. Options for Self-Regulation


1)人们需要什么技能,在现在和将来才能 达到充分发挥其潜力? 2)什么是最好的方式来教这些技能?

国家标准 政策 研究 劳工研究,经济学,社会学等其他领 域 日常经验




媒介:名词,有效传递某种信息的中间体 Medium: a means of effectively conveying something.
--Merriam Webster Dictionary


悲伤 sad

愤怒 angry

惊讶 surprised

环境:名词。可以影响某 物存在或某事发生的情况 或者条件

Context: The situation or conditions in which something exists or occurs which can affect its meaning.

你戳到了自己的手指 You stubbed your toe

你记住了某件重要的事情 You remembered something important

你刚刚赢得一场比赛 You just won a game

环境 媒体



1)人们需要什么技能,在现在和将来才能 达到充分发挥其潜力? 2)什么是最好的方式来教这些技能?




日益重视近40年来 从阅读到21世纪文学理论?

Reading 内部的 认知的
Literacy 技能的组合 有关社会和经济的 21st Century Literacy

把认知的,社会的,技术 的技能相结合,与社会和 全球化连结在一起






MIT’s Scratch






重新合成 (Remix)

获取文化并把 他们融合成一 种新的文化形 式

Borrow? Modify? Improve? Inspire? Transform?

Some Examples of Contemporary Remix Practices

http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=-ek9CchVpWE

http://www.archive.org/details/DjDang http://youtu.be/6y_hIQC0CDY erMouse-TheGreyAlbum

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dnhKP w2NXIw

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2T5_0 AGdFic



Remix for Job Preparation Thomas Friedman
Friedman: 这个任务可以是:将这两 个融合在一起 Interviewer: 这些孩子们思想的集合 Friedman: 哦,他们融合了别人的思 想。他们已经很自然地做到了这 一点。今后,能最好的融合别人 思想的人将会变为最富有的人 From School Administrator February 2008

• • • • Science Technology Engineering Math STEMx STEAM

Quick to hire industries [are] business, creative services, healthcare, science & technology, and social services…many of these sectors will overlap with each other.
--US News and World Report on an analysis of 2012 US Department of Labor’s Job Projections.
能够快速被聘请的行业有:商务,创新服务,医疗保健,科技和社会公益服 务,他们之间互有交集。

Examples of Hybrid Fields
• • • • • • Bio-Energy Medical-Technology Economic-Mapping Automotive-Computer Programming Financial-Software Medical-Graphic Arts

Examples of Hybrid Fields(混合领域)
• • • • Bio-Energy 生物能 Medical-Technology 医药科技 Economic-Mapping 经济走向 Automotive-Computer Programming

• Financial-Software 财务软件 • Medical-Graphic Arts 医学图形艺术

Technology and Remix

Guttenberg’s Printing Press
Wine Press—1st Century AD Chinese Moveable Type –10 Century AD Gutenberg Printing Press—15th Century AD

“Scientific innovation is more bricolage than breakthrough”
--Steven Johnson, Where Good Ideas Come From

Design That Matters: The Car Parts Incubator


Steve Jobs



MP3 Player Late 1990s 2001

From http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/11/14/111114fa_fact_gladwell#ixzz1dPyB1d7Q

Futuremedia @ Georgia Tech

Education, Technology, and Remix

Computer Game Video + Original Audio



Remix for Synthesis
PAPER REFERENCES [Remember to double space and indent all but first lines] BOOK, ONE AUTHOR MLA 5.6.1 Kaku, Michio. Hyperspace: A Scientific Odyssey through Parallel Universes, Time Warps and the Enth Dimension. New York: Oxford UP, 1994. BOOK, TWO OR THREE AUTHORS MLA 5.6.4 Maddock, Richard C., and Richard L. Fulton. Marketing to the Mind: Right Brain Strategies for Advertising and Marketing. Westport, CT: Quorum, 1996. BOOK, MORE THAN THREE AUTHORS MLA 5.6.4 Gilman, Sandra, et al. Hysteria Beyond Freud. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993. BOOK, AN EDITOR MLA 5.6.2 Lopate, Philip, ed. The Art of the Personal Essay: an Anthology from the Classical Era to the Present. New York: AnchorDoubleday, 1994.


Organizer for Digital Storytelling Projects

Assessment Rubric

Full Project


Example: Dred Scott, the Movie

• Book • Important Math Concept • Understudied Part of History (e.g. Whiskey Rebellion, the year 1799) • DS Example • Pi Example
For Dred Scott, look here for some starter media http://is.gd/trailermedia



Remix for Job Preparation Thomas Friedman
Friedman: 这个任务可以是:将这两 个融合在一起 Interviewer: 这些孩子们思想的集合 Friedman: 哦,他们融合了别人的思 想。他们已经很自然地做到了这 一点。今后,能最好的融合别人 思想的人将会变为最富有的人 From School Administrator February 2008



On Major TV networks from 1948-2008


On Major TV networks from 1948-2008

On YouTube from July–December 2008


Khan Academy




• Technology 科技 • Educational 教育 • Educational Technology
教育技术学:是在视听教育,程序教学,系 统化设计教学等方面发展起来的。


Technology: 1. The practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area. 2. A manner of accomplishing a task especially using technical processes, methods, or knowledge.
--Merriam Webster Online Dictionary

Technology Quote
This technology will cut us off from the real world, ruin our memory and reasoning abilities, make users lazy, and make gossip and half truths possible.

科技让我们脱离真是的世 界,破坏我们的记忆和推 理能力,让我们懒惰,让 流言和难论真假的事情变 为可能。
Socrates on Writing and the Alphabet about 419 BC

Technology (两种视角)
Machine View: Technology is very closely related with machines or physical systems of some sort.

Social View: Technology includes physical systems and the organization of knowledge for the achievement of practical purposes as well as any tool or technique of doing or making, by which capability is extended.
社会:科技包括物理系统与包含以实践为目标的成就和实践的工具戒 技术的知识体系,借此科技的能力被极大的拓展了。
Based on Luppicini, R. (2005). A Systems Definition of Educational Technology in Society. Educational Technology & Society, 8 (3), 103-109.

Machine Systems View
• • • • • • iPads Smartboards Computer Web sites 3D Printer Car • • • • • • Printing Press Video Assembly line TV Radio Telephone

Social Systems View
• • • • • • • Wing Chun Ku Crop Rotation Plans Animal Husbandry Weather prediction ABA Therapy Writing Systems Interstate Highways

• TV Networks • Factory System and Industrialization • Print Culture • Maps • MyMathLab

“We shape our tools, and therefore our tools shape us.”
• --Marshal McLuhan Understanding Media, 1964

Bicycle for the Mind
Bicycles for the mind

McCloud, S. (1992). Understanding Comics.

How does technology change our lives, mindsets, cultures, and systems?


Formal, Informal, Non-Formal Education
Formal education: the hierarchically structured, chronologically graded ‘education system’,

Non-formal education: any organized educational activity outside the established formal system (corporate training, Khan Academy, book clubs) Informal education: the truly lifelong process whereby every individual acquires attitudes, values, skills and knowledge from daily experience (youtube, parenting, Sesame Street, grandma’s recipes).

非正式教育:除了现有的正式体系外的仸何有组织的教育行为(公司培训,可 汗学院,读书俱乐部)

非正规教育:正真受用终身的教育,从日常经验中获得态度,价值观,技能和 知识《优酷,父母,芝麻街(动画片),祖母的配方》
From Coombs, P. H. with Prosser, C. & Ahmed, M. (1973) New paths to learning for rural children and youth. New York: International Council for Educational Development

What is Intelligence?
Cognitive View 认知 Focus of intelligence is within the individual.

Social View 社会 Intelligence is distributed among the person, tools, symbols, community.
智力分布在人,工具,符号和社会 中

--Piaget, Binet

--Vygotski, Pea, Perkins

Cole, M., & Wertsch, J. V. (1996). Beyond the individual-social antinomy in discussions of Piaget and Vygotsky. Human Development (0018716X), 39250-256. Available at http://lchc.ucsd.edu/People/MCole/Beyond%20the%20individualsocial%20antimony.pdf

What is Educational Technology

Older definition 1920-1970 (and today?)
Media born of the communications revolution which can be used for instructional purposes alongside the teacher, textbook, and blackboard. . . . The pieces that make up instructional technology [include]: television, films, overhead projectors, computers, and other items of “hardware” and “software”. . . (p. 21)
US Commission on Instructional Technology, 1970
诞生于通讯革命之中的媒体被用作除了教师、书本和黑板以外的教学活动。 这一教学技术的发展包含了:电视,电影,投影仪,电脑以及各式各样的硬 件和软件。

More Current 1970
Instructional technology goes beyond any particular medium or device…instructional technology is more than the sum of its parts. It is a systematic way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating the whole process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives, based on research on human learning and communication, and employing a combination of human and nonhuman resources to bring about more effective instruction.
US Commission on Instructional Technology, 1970
系统化的设计,实施和评价特定目标的教与学,并依靠对人们学习与 交流的研究、采用人和物多方面的资源来提高教学效率。

Technocentric vs Systemic Thinking with Educational Technology
A technocentric approach focuses on a technology. A systemic approach, in contrast to a technocentric one, is concerned with the learning culture. --Papert
技术中心论重视科技(带来的变化),而系统 性思维论更关注学习的文化
Technocentric: What can a SmartBoard do?


Systemic: How does a classroom change with a Smartboard?


Related Ideas
6 slides—6 ideas

Learning Management Systems: Webbased software designed with a collection of tools for teaching and learning is a secure, dedicated environment.
Used for:

•Web Enhanced Courses •Hybrid Courses •Online Courses •Autonomous Courses

Flipped Classroom

Lectures and Activities

Lectures and Activities


MOOC: Massive Online Open Courses

Adaptive Learning—technology that adapts its content and methods to the assessment of the individual learner.
Individualized: Tutoring Assessments Practice Feedback Progress Goals

Examples: Aleks Cogbooks myitlab

BYOD (Bring Your Own Device)
Integrating a variety of different platforms and devices into the school environment. Supplied by the students and/or the school


cshamburg@njcu.edu http://web.njcu.edu/faculty/csham burg/


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