Session 2. 1

CONTENTS (1 of 2)
Objective facilities design function Major elements of facilities design Importance of facilities design Facilities design & productivity Objectives of facilities design (FD) Functions & activities in FD Need for FD Enterprise design process Sequence of steps in design process

CONTENTS (2 of 2)
Types of layout and problems expected Placing a new facility Desirable characteristics of a good layout Organization for layout function Functions of Plant Engineering Department Inter Department help in layout design Facilities Design process Consideration of Facilities Design

OBJECTIVES  to get the inputs (material, supplies, etc) into through and out of each facility in the shortest time practicable, at acceptable cost.  Facilities Design deals with the design and arrangement of physical elements of an activity/s related to the manufacturing industry, whose drawing represents a plant layout.  Facilities Design analyzes, conceptualizes, designs implements systems for the production of goods or services. and

The Facilities Design Function

 FD is represented as a floor plan, or an arrangement of physical facilities (equipment, land, buildings, utilities, etc.) 4

Major Elements of Facilities Design
S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. Plant Warehouse Retail Store Post Office Typical Inputs Materials and Supplies Large quantities of Merchandise Orders of Merchandise Letters and Parcels Production Activities Conversion of materials to parts assemblies, products Safekeeping and availability Outputs Production and Scrap! Orders of Merchandise

Display, convenient access, Individual items for transfers of ownership customers Sorting and accumulating Orderly arrangement of letters and parcels Meals Cured Patients Happy people

5. 6. 7.

Restaurant Hospital Home

Food and supplies Sick Patients, Medicines, Supplies Food, supplies, equipment, e.t.c

Preparation of food Services required to “cure” patients Meals and orderly activity

Scope of Facilities Design
 Dealing only with the careful and detailed planning of production equipment arrangement.  Should include a careful study of at least the following areas of interest :
1. Transportation 2. Receiving 3. Storage 4. Production 5. Assembly 6. Packaging and packing 7. Material handling 8. Personnel Services 9. Auxiliary production activities 10. Warehousing 11. Shipping 12. Offices 13. External Facilities 14. Buildings – Canteens 15. Grounds 16. Location 17. Safety 18. Scrap


1. 2. 3.

Importance of Facilities Design An efficient plan for the flow of material is a primary
requisite for economical production. The material flow pattern becomes the basis for an effective arrangement of physical facilities. Material handling converts the static flow pattern into a dynamic reality, providing the means by which material is caused or permitted to flow. Effective arrangement of facilities around the material flow pattern should result in efficient operation of the various related processes. Efficient operation of the various related processes. Minimum production cost should result in maximum 7 profit.


5. 6.

Facilities Design & Productivity
 Increasing productivity is usually a desired result of facilities design or re-design.  It is accomplished by the design efforts necessary to carry out the several objectives of the facilities design process


Objectives of Facilities Design
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Facilitate the manufacturing Process Minimize material handling Maintain flexibility of arrangement and of operation Maintain high turnover of work-in-process Hold down investment in equipment. Make economical use of building cube. Promote effective utilization of manpower. Provide for employee convenience, safety and comfort in doing the work.

Facilitating the Manufacturing Process
1. Arrange Machines, equipment and work areas so that material is caused to move smoothly along in as straight a line as is possible 2. Eliminate all delays possible. It has been said that during 80% of the time a part is in the plant it is either being moved or stored – only 20% of the time is productive. 3. Plan the flow so that the work passing through an area can be easily identified and counted, with little possibility of becoming mixed with other parts or batches in adjacent areas. 4. Maintain quality of work by planning for the maintenance of conditions that are conducive 10 to quality.

Objectives of Facilities Design
 If a finished layout is to present an effective arrangement of related work areas, in which goods can be economically produced, it must be planned with the objectives of layout well fixed in mind. The major objectives are to : 1. Facilitate the manufacturing process 2. Minimize material handling 3. Maintain flexibility of arrangement and of operation 4. Hold down investment in equipment 5. Make economical use of building cube 6. Promote effective utilization of manpower 7. Provide for employee convenience, safety, and comfort 11 in doing the work

Functions and Activities in Facilities Design
 Facilities design & Plant layout group perform a wide variety of activities.  The list contain a. Raw materials b. Theoretical potential activities c. Range of facilities design interests


Functions and Activities in Facilities Design
S.No 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Actions Advise (on) Allocate Analyze Approve Classify Coordinate Design Determine Develop Establish Estimate Evaluate Forecast Improve Investigate Measure Areas of Interest Assembly Auxiliary Services Building Construction Containers Cost Distribution Equipment Fabrication Facilities Flow Grounds Handling Location Maintenance Manpower Nature of Interest Activities Analysis Appropriation Automation Availability Benefits Budgets Capability Capacity Changes Contracts Controls Costs Criteria Data Efficiency

Functions and Activities in Facilities Design…
S.No 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. Actions Areas of Interest Nature of Interest Minimize Model Modify Monitor Organize Plan Predict Promote Provide Qualify Reduce Review Select Specify Study Manufacturing Material Office Packaging Packing Plant layout Pollution Process Production Productivity Repair Safety Salvage Scrap Security Equipment Expansion Facilities Feasibility Flexibility Flow Functions Hazards Incentives Installation Interrelationships Layout Liason Location Long range Planning

Functions and Activities in Facilities Design…
S.No 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. Test Up-date Actions Supervise Space Storage Traffic Transportation Utilities Warehousing Waste Areas of Interest Nature of Interest Measurements Mechanization Methods Modifications Needs Objectives Operations Organization Performance Plans Policies Problems Procedures Processes Programs

Functions and Activities in Facilities Design…
S.No 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. Actions Areas of Interest Nature of Interest Progress Records Regulations Replacements Reports Requirements Resources Schedules Services Sources Specifications Standards Systems Tests Trends Utilization

Need for Facilities Design
1. Design a new plant. 2. Make changes and improvement to present design. 3. Integrate & locate new equipment. 4. Develop future plans.


Functions and Activities in Facilities Design…
Long and Short Term Plans: 10 years ahead 5 years ahead 2 years ahead 1 year ahead 6-12 months ahead Estimate total space by function. Area allocation diagram by department. Rough layout of area under consideration. Detailed Layout. Appropriation approved.


Enterprise Design Process


The Enterprise Design Process
 Market Research: Determining what the customer wants  Sales Forecasting: Determining how many, or how much.  Product Design: Delineating product or service details  Process Design: Determining how to make the product, or provide the service.  Operation Design: Working out methods for effecting the processes, and from that, the number of machines and amount of manpower required.


 Facilities Design: Determining the material flow paths, and designing the arrangement of activities to provide an orderly and efficient movement of material through the overall process.  Equipment Design: (as necessary)  Building Design: By the architect and his associates. 5. Financing the facility 6. Procurement a. Building b. Equipment c. Manpower 7. Installation of facilities

The Enterprise Design Process…

• •

The Enterprise Design Process… The actual manufacturing or productive process :
Manufacturing - the conversion of materials and supplies into products, such a typewriters, lamps, foods, automobiles, etc • The productive process – the organization and use of human effort to accomplish a desired result, in the form of a product or a service, ( dry cleaning, retailing, banking food services, etc). Warehousing of the finished goods. Distribution of goods. Marketing and sales. Customer: who use, evaluation, complaints, suggestions, etc., come back to the enterprise by way of 22 Market Research, beginning the whole cycle over again

• • • •

Sequence of Steps in Design Process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Procure basic data Analyze basic data Design productive process Plan material flow pattern Consider general material handling plan Calculate equipment requirements Plan individual work stations Select specific material handling equipment Coordinate groups of related operations Design activity interrelationships


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Determine storage requirements Plan service and auxiliary activities Determine space requirements Allocate activities to total space Consider building tyres Construct master layout Evaluate, adjust, and check layout with appropriate persons 8. Obtain approvals 9. Install layout’ 24 10. Follow-up on implementation of the layout

Sequence of Steps in Design Process…

Types Layout Problems Expected
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Design change Reduces department Enlarged department Adding a new product Moving a department Adding a new department Replacing obsolete equipment Change in production methods Cost reduction

Planning A New Facility
1. Building not suited to requirements. 2. Failure to apply line production techniques when applicable. 3. Product design or process changes made without making necessary changes in the layout. 4. Installation of additional equipment without considering. 5. Unexplainable delays and idle time. 6. Stock control difficulties. 7. Decreased production in an area. 8. Crowded conditions. 9. Many men moving material. 26

Planning A New Facility…
1. Bottlenecks in production 2. Backtracking 3. Excessive temporary storage. 4. Obstacles in material flow 5. Scheduling difficulties 6. Wasted “cube” 7. Idle people and equipment 8. Excessive time in process 9. Poor housekeeping

A Good Layout Desirable Characteristics
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Planned activity interrelationships Planned material flow pattern Straight-line flow Minimum back-tracking Auxiliary flow lines Straight aisles Minimum handling between operations Planned material handling methods Minimum handling distances Processing combined with material handling

A Good Layout Desirable Characteristics…
1. Movement progresses from receiving towards shipping 2. First operations near receiving 3. Last operations near shipping 4. Point-of-use storage where appropriate 5. Layout adaptable to changing conditions 6. Planned for orderly expansion 7. Minimum goods in process 8. Minimum material in process 9. Maximum use of all plant levels 10. Adequate storage space


A Good Layout Desirable Characteristics…
1. Adequate spacing between facilities 2. Building constructed around planned layout 3. Material delivered to employees and removed from work areas 4. Minimum walking by production operators 5. Proper location of production and employee service facilities 6. Mechanical handling installed where practicable 7. Adequate employee service functions 8. Planned control of noise, dirt, fumes, dust, humidity, etc. 9. Maximum processing time to overall production 30 time

A Good Layout Desirable Characteristics…
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Minimum manual handling Minimum re-handling Partitions don’t impede material flow Minimum handling by direct labor Planned scrap removal Receiving and shipping in logical locations.


Organization for Layout Function
Large Organizations : Plant Layout Department Small Organizations : Fireman / Manager / GM

Small Organizations : In many organization the designations of layout mangers differ widely

Organization for Layout Function
General Manager





Product Engineering

Industrial Relations

Quality Control

Production Control


Plant Engineering

Industrial Engineering

Production Engineering

Plant Layout


Plant Layout 33

Functions of Plant Engineering Department
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Construction Housekeeping and custodial service Maintenance Material handling Facilities design Pollution control Safety Transportation Utilities Shops


Organization Of Layout Function


Interdepartmental help in Layout Design
A. Sales Department 1. Determining quantities for production runs 2. Determining quantities to manufacture for replacement parts B. Purchasing Department 1. Finding necessary factory equipment 2. Procuring equipment at lowest practicable cost C. Product engineering department 1. Providing blueprints and parts lists 2. Offering information on manufacture, as gained 36 in research and development work

Interdepartmental help in Layout Design…
A. Industrial Relations Department 1. Helping to design safety into the layout 2. Looking after employee comfort and services in layout 3. Training personnel for new jobs necessitated by new layouts B. Finance Department 1. Aiding in determining cost of layout 2. Aiding in keeping equipment records

Interdepartmental help in Layout Design…
A. Production Engineering Division 1. Design of processing and production methods 2. Design of special tools and equipment 3. Planning operation sequence 4. Specifying machines and equipment to be used 5. Trying out tools, etc 6. Mechanization and automation 7. Production capability analysis 8. New process and equipment development

A. Industrial Engineering Division 1. Determining work methods for each work area 1. Determine production standards for all operation 2. Determining machine capacities and number of machines needed 3. Aid in comparing effectiveness of methods between alternate layouts 4. Suggestions on methods B. Production Control Division 1. Supply routings or operation lists 2. Determine production schedules 3. Aid in planning materials flow 39

Interdepartmental help in Layout Design…

Interdepartmental help in Layout Design…
Offer suggestions on materials handling methods Plan storage methods and space requirements A. Production Division 1. Suggestions on machine arrangement 2. Suggestions on human relations problems involved in layout 3. Ideas on materials handling • Plant Engineering division ( other than plant layout group) 1. Aid in planning for utilities 2. Plan for building changes or construction 3. Move machinery and equipment 40 • •

Interdepartmental help in Layout Design…
1. Install machinery and equipment A. Quality Control Divisions 1. Help plant layout to maintain quality in processes 2. Assure proper handling to protect product from damage. 3. Plan scrap disposal


Facilities Design Procedure
Plan and design the arrangement of • • • • • • Production equipment Handling equipment Auxiliary equipment Space Land Buildings


Considerations in Facilities Design
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Collect basic data Analyze basic data Design production process Plan material flow pattern Consider general material handling plan Calculate Equipment requirements Plan individual work areas Select specific material handling equipments Coordinate groups of related operations Design activity relationships


Considerations in Facilities Design…
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10.

Determine storage requirements Plan service and auxiliary activities Determine space requirements Allocate activity areas to total space Consider building types Construct master layout Evaluate, adjust and check layout with appropriate personnel Obtain approvals Install layout Follow up implementation of Layout.


• “Plant Layout and Material Handling”, Chapter: 1, Pages 3-24, James M Apple, John Wiley & Sons