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8.

7 Modeling with Exponential & Power Functions


p. 509

Just like 2 points determine a line, 2 points determine an exponential curve.

Write an Exponential function, y=abx whose graph goes thru (1,6) & (3,24)
Substitute the coordinates into y=abx to get 2 equations. 1. 6=ab1 2. 24=ab3 Then solve the system:

Write an Exponential function, y=abx whose graph goes thru (1,6) & (3,24) (continued)

1. 6=ab1 a=6/b 2. 24=(6/b) b3 a= 6/b = 6/2 = 3 24=6b2 4=b2 2=b

So the function is Y=32x

Write an Exponential function, y=abx whose graph goes thru (-1,.0625) & (2,32)
.0625=ab-1 32=ab2 (.0625)=a/b b(.0625)=a

32=[b(.0625)]b2 x y=1/2 8 3 32=.0625b 512=b3

When you are given more than 2 points, you can decide whether an exponential model fits the points by plotting the natural logarithms of the y values against the x values. If the new points (x, lny) fit a linear pattern, then the original points (x,y) fit an exponential pattern.

(-2, ) (-1, ) (0, 1) (1, 2)

(x, lny) (-2, -1.38) (-1, -.69) (0,0) (1, .69)

Finding a model.
Cell phone subscribers 1988-1997 t= # years since 1987

t
y

1
1.6

2
2.7

3
4.4

4
6.4

10

8.9 13.1 19.3 28.2 38.2 48.7

lny

0.47 0.99 1.48 1.86 2.19 2.59 2.96 3.34 3.64 3.89

Now plot (x,lny)

Since the points lie close to a line, an exponential model should be a good fit.

Use 2 points to write the linear equation. (2, .99) & (9, 3.64) m= 3.64 - .99 = 2.65 = .379 92 7 (y - .99) = .379 (x 2) y - .99 = .379x - .758 y = .379x + .233 LINEAR MODEL FOR (t,lny) The y values were lns & xs were t so: lny = .379t + .233 now solve for y elny = e.379t + .233 exponentiate both sides y = (e.379t)(e.233) properties of exponents y = (e.233)(e.379t) Exponential model

y = (e.233)(e.379t)

y = 1.26 1.46t

You can use a graphing calculator that performs exponential regression to do this also. It uses all the original data. Input into L1 and L2 and push exponential regression

L1 & L2 here Then edit & enter the data. 2nd quit to get out.

Exp regression is 10 So the calculators exponential equation is y = 1.3 1.46t

which is close to what we found!

Modeling with POWER functions

y =

b ax

a = 5/2b 9 = (5/2b)6b 9 = 53b 1.8 = 3b log31.8 = log33b .535 b a = 3.45 y = 3.45x.535

Only 2 points are needed (2,5) & (6,9) 5 = a 2b 9 = a 6b

You can decide if a power model fits data points if: (lnx,lny) fit a linear pattern Then (x,y) will fit a power pattern
See Example #5, p. 512

You can also use power regression on the calculator to write a model for data.

Assignment