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Basic knowledge for CDMA system

Basic knowledge for CDMA system Agenda

architecture of CDMA system Interface between different entitiy

numbering plan

digital public land mobile communication network(PLMN)



Um BTS X.25/ No.7 OMC Signaling voice SC

BSC:Base Station Controller BTS:Base transceiver station MSC:Mobile Switching Center HLR:Home Location Register VLR:Visitor Location Register AUC:Authentication Center

SC:Short Message Center

OMC:Operation and Maintenance Center

1.Main components of CDMA

MSS(mobile switching sub-system) BSS(base station sub-system)

MS(mobile station)
OMM(operation and maintenance sub-system)

1.1 Base Station sub-System

FunctionIt provides trunks between wireless part and fixed part of PLMN network. ---BSC ---BTS BTS is in charge of wireless transmission, BSC performs the control function and management

1.2 Mobile Switching sub-System

FunctionIt performs CDMA switching function as well

as manage mobile subscriber data and database for mobile

service. It is a interface between CDMA network and other network (such as other PLMN,PSTN etc.).

It includes 4 function units

---MSC ---HLR ---VLR ---AUC

1.2.1Mobile Switching Center(MSC) It is responsible for setting up,managing and clearing connections

as well as routing the calls to the proper user.

It provides the network interfaces,the charging function and the function of processing the signaling.

MSC get data for call handling from 3 databases: VLR/HLR/AUC GMSC(gateway):When a non-CDMA end subscriber calls a CDMA subscriber, the call will first be routed to a MSC of the CDMA network (i.e. GMSC), which will inquire about the corresponding HLR, and route the call to the MSC where the called subscriber is located in.

1.2.2 Visitor Location Register(VLR) VLR is a dynamic database used by MSC for information index.,it stores all related information of mobile subscribers that enter into its coverage area,which enables MSC to set up incoming and outgoing calls. subscriber parameters include: subscriber number, location area

identity(LAI),users status , services which subscriber can use and so

on. When the subscriber leaves this area, it should register in another

VLR,and old VLR will delete all the data about this subscriber.

can be built together with the MSC or set separately.

1.2.3 Home Location Register(HLR HLR:It is a static database . when a user apply for mobile service, all data about this subscriber will be stored in HLR. Information: ----subscriber information (ESN, MDN, IMSI, MIN), service information, current location and valid term, ----the mobile subscriber location (MSC/VLR address),so as to set up the call route to the MS. HLR can be built together with the MSC or set separately.

1.2.4 Authentication Center

Conceptionit is a entity to prevent illegal subscribers from accessing CDMA can generate the parameter to confirm the subscribers identity .at the same time it can encrypt users data according to users need. Composition databasesave MIN,ESN, authentication key) Generator of random number Algorithm(CAVE algorithm)

AUC can be built together with HLR or set separately


Operation and maintenance center (OMC)

OMC provides operation and maintenance services to the network operator, manages the registered subscriber information and conducts network planning to enhance the overall working efficiency and service quality of the system.

Based on the main maintenance functions, there are two types of operation and maintenance centers: OMC-S and OMC-R. The OMC-S is mainly responsible for maintenance of MSS while the OMC-R is mainly for BSS.
We also call OMC as background.

Basic knowledge for CDMA system Agenda

architecture of CDMA system

Interface between different entitiy

numbering plan

The interface and protocol between entities

The difference between interface and protocol:
The interface:the connection point between 2 adjacent entities. The protocol: illustrate the rules followed when information exchanged at the connection point.

The interface between entities

U m

E Abis



B D T2












1 . Um interface:
Um interface defines the communication interface between MS and BTS, also called air interface. it realizes the compatibility between all kinds of MS and different BTS, so that the MS can roaming.(it is a open interface)

it adopts some anti-jamming technology and measurements to reduce interference and improve the frequency spectrum efficiency.
It realizes the physical connection between MS and CDMA network.(that is wireless link)at the same time it is also in charge of transferring of the information about RR, MM and CM.

Note: RR:radio resource management

MM:mobile management
CM:connection management

2. Abis interface:
the intra- interface between the BTS and BSC,used for remote connection

2.048 Mb/s PCM digital link

3 .A interface and protocol

It is a interface between BSC and MSC

It is based on 2.048Mb/S PCM digital links

The standard protocols for this interface include IS-634, IOS2.4 and IOS4.0, etc.

A-Interface is mainly used to transmit the following information: BSS management information Call processing Mobility management

It is a open interface.

4. B interface:
the interface between MSC and VLR.

MSC transfer the location information of roaming

subscriber to VLR Query subscriber data from VLR when setting up the calls usually VLR is built with MSC together, so the

interface turns to be an internal interface and has no

standard rules.

5. C interface
The interface between MSC and HLR.
The system adopts IS-41D protocol. The interface is based on 2.048Mb/s PCM digital link.

When a MS is called,MSC must query the called MSs routing message from HLR through this interface to locate the called MS, and according to the record,HLR will return the routing message(MSC/VLR number) to MSC.

6. D interface
The interface between VLR and HLR.
The system adopts IS-41D protocol. The interface is based on 2.048Mb/s PCM digital link.

The interface is used for exchange of subscriber location information, authorization information and service data

7. E interface:
the interface between MSC and is used for channel change over between 2 MSC

The system adopts IS-41D protocol. The interface is based on 2.048Mb/s PCM digital link. When a mobile station roams from one MSC to another, the MSC will perform handover to keep the subscribers' conversation uninterrupted. In this case data exchange must be implemented between the MSCs.

8. Q interface :

Interface between SC and MSC .

The system adopts ANSI-41E protocol. The interface is based on 2.048Mb/s PCM digital link.

In submission and reception of short messages, short messages are transferred between the short message center and the mobile switching center. At the same time, when the subscriber's short message capability changes, the mobile switching center needs to notify the short message center promptly.

9. the interface between MSC and PSTN:

The inter-office signaling interface,used for setting up voice connection between PSTN and PLMN.

wireless Area partition

CDMA service area PLMN Service area MSC Service area Location area cell

Wireless cover area structure

The smallest area that can not be divided.

2.Location area:
The area that MS moves without updating location.Use to orientation and paging. It includes some cells. One location area has one LAI to identify each other.

3.MSC service area:

The area that all the cell controlled by one MSC covered.
One MSC contains one or more location areas.

4 .PLMN:
It includes one or more MSCs service areas.

5.CDMA service area:

It includes global PLMN networks .

architecture of CDMA system

Interface between dirrerent entitiy

numbering plan

1. mobile directer number(MDN) A MDN number is the number dialed by the caller subscriber in PLMN. Composition of a MDN number.




International MDN National MDN

cc: country code( china=86) MAC: mobile service access code(china:13x) H0H1H2H3 : to identify different HLR ABCD: mobile subscriber number

2. International mobile subscriber identification number (IMSI) IMSI is a unique number that can identify a mobile subscriber in the PLMN network. Composition of an IMSI number




International mobile subscriber identification National subscriber identification mobile

MCC mobile country code(CHINA=460) MNC mobile network code

MSIN mobile subscriber identification number, a 10-bit algorism number, expressed as




XX: 09 In china(it is allocated by international organization) ,HoH1H2H3 is the same as HoH1H2H3 in the MDN number, and ABCD is a subscriber number. IMSI is used in all signaling in a CDMA mobile communication network, stored in HLR, VLR and the UM card.

3. mobile station identification number (MIN) MIN is the same as MSIN;

4. Temporary Local Digital Number (TLDN) TLDN is a number temporarily assigned by VLR of called party .

In CDMA system, this number is only used when the calling and the called are not in the same MSC/VLR .
This number is released and re-used by other subscribers after the completion of the voice connection. In china, its structure is: 8613344M1M2M3ABC 8613334M1M2M3ABC(reserve)

5 .MSC/VLR number MSC/VLR number is used in the No.7 signaling. In china :460030944+M1M2M3+100 M1M2M3: to indentify different MSC/VLR 6.HLR number

HLR number is used in the No.7 signaling . In china : 4600309+H0H1H2H3+0000

NOTE: These number will be allocated by headquarters .

7. Location area identification number (LAI) LAI is used to identify the location area.

Its number structure is:

MCCMNCLAC MCC and MNC : same as the MCC and MNC in IMSI.

LAC is a location area code that uniquely identifies each location area in our digital PLMN. It is a 2-byte hexadecimal BCD code represented by L1L2L3L4 (with the range of 0000FFFF, able to define 65536 different location areas.)

8.Global Cell IdentificationGCI

It identifies certain cell in a location area.


CI:2 bytes hexadecimal BCD code MSC defines.

9. ESN: electronic serial number It is setting by the manufacturer of the mobile station or UIM card.. 10. SID( system identify) and NID(network identify) In CDMA network, system judges whether roaming occurs according to a pair of identification codes (SID and NID). Each mobile local network is assigned with a SID, which is decided by the headquarters. The NID assignment is managed by local networks.

Number plan in MAP procedure

1. Location updating between MSCs






Number plan in MAP procedure

2. Fixed subscriber call mobile subscriber
PSTN 1 GMSC 2 5 HLR 1.MDN 2. MDN 3. MSC/VLR 4. HLR number 5. GMSC/VLR number 6. TLDN 6 MSC/VLR MS

Note :All these numbers are the called numbers

Number plan in MAP procedure

3. mobile subscriber call mobile subscriber

4 6

MSC1/VLR2 9 1 MS1 10


8 MS2