This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
PRESENTED BY : RIMPLE POONIA 2010PHA2765
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: PROF. JOBY JOSEPH
Digital holography: recording by Charge Coupled
Devices(CCD‟s). Reconstruction by numerical methods
Recording and reconstruction
Ulf Schnars,and Werner P O J¨uptner Ulf Schnars,and Werner P O J¨uptner :‟ Digital :‟ Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of hologram‟ recording and numerical reconstruction of hologram
𝜂 ′ = 𝑖 𝜆 𝜌 = ∞ ℎ −∞ ′ 𝑥. 𝑦 𝐸𝑅 (𝑥.𝜉 and 𝜂 values small compared to d we have for real image 𝜉 − 𝑥 𝜌 = 𝑑 + 2𝑑 2 𝜂 − 𝑦 + 2𝑑 2 1 𝜉 − 𝑥)2 + 𝜂 − 𝑦 − 8 𝑑 3 2 2 +. 𝑦) exp 2𝜋𝜌′ −𝑖 𝜆 (𝑥 − 𝜉 ′ )2 +(𝑦 − 𝜌′ 𝜂 ′ )2 +𝑑 2 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦 Using approximation :𝑥 and 𝑦 values. . .Reconstruction methods: • Fresnel approach: diffraction at any aperture given by Fresnel Kirchoff integral •Γ 𝜉 ′ .
y h x. 𝜂 = exp −i exp −𝑖 𝜉 + 𝜂2 𝜆𝑑 𝜆 𝜆𝑑 ∞ 2 + 𝑦 2 𝜋 𝑥 2𝜋 𝑥𝜉 + 𝑦𝜂 ∗ 𝐸𝑟 x.For Fourth term 1 8 2 𝜉−𝑥)2 + 𝜂−𝑦 2 𝑑 3 ≪ 𝜆 𝜉 − 𝑥 2 𝜂 − 𝑦 2 𝜌 = 𝑑 + + 2𝑑 2𝑑 • Using in above equation 𝑖 2𝜋𝑑 𝜋 2 Γ 𝜉. y exp −i exp 𝑖 𝜆𝑑 𝜆𝑑 −∞ 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦 .
One fourier transform involved Minimum distance requirement 𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝜆𝑑 𝑁Δ𝑥 𝑎𝑥 2 𝑛𝑥 𝜆 Pixel distance in reconstructed images varies with the reconstruction distance as Δ𝜉 = .
ℑ 𝑔 . 𝑥. 𝑥 − 𝑦 Convolution theorem is applied • Three Fourier transforms involved: ∗ Γ 𝜉. 𝑦) 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦 With impulse response ∞ ∗ 𝐸 −∞ 𝑅 𝑔 𝜉. 𝑦 ℎ 𝑥. 𝑦 𝑔(𝜉. 𝜂 = ℑ−1 ℑ ℎ. 𝑥. 𝜂. 𝑥.Convolution approach: • Numerical processing of Fresnel Kirchhoff integral is time consuming • Reconstruction formula with superposition integral Γ 𝜉. 𝜂 = 𝑥. 𝜂. 𝑦 = 2𝜋 2 2 2 𝑖 exp −𝑖 𝜆 𝑑 + 𝑥−𝜉 + 𝑦−𝜂 𝜆 𝑑 2 + 𝑥−𝜉 2 + 𝑦−𝜂 2 • System characterised by 𝑔 𝜉. 𝐸𝑅 . 𝜂. 𝑦 = 𝑔 𝜉 − 𝜂.
Digital holographic microscopy Lateral resolution of holographic reconstruction is given 𝑑 𝜆1 𝑑 −1 𝑀 = [1 + ′ − ] 𝑑 𝑟 𝜆2 𝑑𝑟 where 𝑑𝑟 =distance between source point and hologram plane in recording process 𝑑′𝑟 =distance between source point and hologram plane in reconstruction process 𝜆1 and 𝜆2 wavelenghts during recording and reconstruction For desired magnification reconstruction distance 𝑑′ = 𝑑. 𝑀 and 𝜆1 = 𝜆2 by .
Source point needs to be placed at 1 1 1 −1 𝑑′𝑟 = [ ′ − + ] 𝑑 𝑑 𝑑𝑟 Reference wave needs to be placed at 𝐸𝑅 𝑥. 𝑦 2𝜋 ′ = exp(−𝑖 𝑑′2 𝑟 + 𝑥 − 𝑥𝑟 𝜆 2 + 𝑦 − 𝑦𝑟 2 .
Reconstructions Fresnel approach d=37cm Convolution approach .
Fresnel approach d=37cm Convolution approach .
Interesting Property .
Zero order removal Intensity at the hologram plane Reconstructed wavefront at hologram plane .
Average intensity subtraction Average intensity of all pixels in hologram .
High pass filtering-steps involved Read the hologram Convert from spatial domain to frequency domain with FFT2 and shift the zero components with FFTSHIFT Define a circular mask and position it at the center of the Fourier transformed image Return to spatial domain with IFFT2 and IFFTSHIFT2 Save as tiff image .
High pass filtering Average subtraction .
Spatial filtering-steps involved Read the hologram Convert from spatial domain to frequency domain with FFT2 and shift the zero components with FFTSHIFT Define masks numerically according to the spectrum of the hologram and multiply with the Fourier transform obtained above Return to spatial domain with IFFT2 and IFFTSHIFT2 Filtered hologram is obtained which is numerically reconstructed .
Spatial filtering Spectrum of the hologram .
Twin image elimination .
FIR METHOD .
𝑛 − 𝐼𝑚 𝑚=1 𝑛=1 2 .Autofocusing evaluation functions • In autofocusing determination and maximization of image contrast needed • For amplitude objects-focused image at maximal focus value • For phase objects-minimum absorption-focused image at minimal focus value • Evaluation functions: Variance of the grey function • based on the statistical analysis of the gray value distribution • Sharp structures in a focused image result in a higher contrast than in a smooth defocused image 1 𝑉𝑎𝑟 = 𝑀𝑁 𝑀 𝑁 𝐼 𝑚.
. 𝑦𝑖 . z) 2 . 𝑧 = 𝑒𝑥𝑝 And intensity 𝑖𝜋 𝜆𝑧 𝑥𝑖 2 + 𝑦𝑖 2 𝐹𝑇 𝐻(𝑥. . 𝑦𝑖. 𝑛)] Standard deviation correlation function The reconstructed image field is given by 𝑢 𝑥𝑖 . 0)𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑖𝜋 𝜆𝑧 𝑥𝑖 2 + 𝑦𝑖 2 I 𝑥𝑖 . 𝑦𝑖. 𝑦.Weighted Fourier spectral analysis • quantifies the sharpness of the edges as a focused image contains more fine details than defocused image 𝐹𝑆𝐿 = 1 𝑀𝑁 𝑀 𝑚=1 𝑁 𝑛=1 log[1 + 𝐹(𝑚. z = 𝑢(𝑥𝑖 .
Pin hole Beam splitter1 NF mirror laser lens object MO Beam splitter2 mirror CCD .
• Result .
At d=30 cm At d=45 cm At d=60cm .
Bally... 5:21) Cuche E. New York. 161 (1948) 777-778. and Depeursinge C.H." Appl. Vol. 38. Opt . Collier R. Marquet P. (BioMedical Engineering OnLine2006. "Digital holographic microscopy for live cell applications and • • • • • • • • technical inspection. A52-A61 (2008). Introduction to Fourier Optics.REFERENCES • B. and applications. Appl.”Simultaneous amplitude-contrast and quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by numerical reconstruction of Fresnel off-axis holograms”. B.Opt. Cambridge .( Appl. (Cambridge University Press.39 (2000) 4070-4075. “Spatial filtering for zero-order and twin image elimination in digital off axis holography”. and G. techniques.. Goodman J. 1999) Dubois F. (Academic Press.” Focus plane detection criteria in digital holography microscopy by amplitude analysis” (Optical Society of America.Opt. L Yu and K Kim* “Movies of cellular and sub-cellular motion by digital holographic microscopy”. 2006) Gabor D. and Lin L. Christopher J Mann.. W. Optical Holography. .. Marquet P. (McGraw-Hill.1983). Optical Holography. Nature. Cuche E. Burckhardt C. 47(2). “A new microscope principle”.. Kemper. Schockaert C. 1996).. 1971).:Principle.Callens N and Yourassowsky C. Hariharan P. J. New York. and Depeursinge C.
2005) Schnars U.”Autofocus method for digital holographic reconstruction of microscopic object.” Filter method used to eliminate the zero-order image”. and Juptner W. Schnars U. Rappaz. 56:21. 3D Research (3DR Review). Journal of Modern Optics. Opt. A 21: 2424–2430. 56:21. 7513. of SPIE Vol.”Autofocus method for amplitude and pure phase objects reconstruction in digital holography. Lett. Min et al. T. Langehanenberg P.( Proc. Am.Haijun Zhang. 2377-2383. Kemper. „Principles and techniques of digital holographic microscopy’ (SPIE Rev. Emery. 2005) Wang H. M. “Autofocus for digital Fresnel holograms by use of a Fresnelet-sparsity criterion”.” J. Jericho. Magistretti. “Digital in-line holographic microscopy” (Appl. K. and Juptner W. Hui Wang. Am.2009) Wang H . 2377-2383.” Elimination of zero-order diffraction and conjugate image in off-axis digital holography” (Journal of Modern Optics. P. 2009) .” Appl. “Methods of digital holography: a comparison. Opt. Yong Li & Haijun Zhang):”Elimination of zero-order diffraction and conjugate image in off-axis digital holography”.2009) Wang H. Aili Qin. Mendlovic David. M. 36 (1997) 2367-2370. No.Soc.. Adams M. B. Techniques and Applications. (Opt. and Shabtay Gal. H. Liu W. Digital Holography. 1 2010..• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sucerquia J.2. Xiaoyuan He . New York. 468 -470. and Juptner W. G von Bally and B. “Suppression of dc term in digital holography”.Klages P. Opt Vol. 7375. “Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction. 14 (1997) 2901-2904. Stephan K.( J. Y. 33 (1994) 79–181. 45. Lihong M Yong Li.Manfred H. “Significance of phase and amplitude in the Fourier domain .. Unser. Cuche.. Min Huang. ( IEEE. Jericho. Marquet. Kreis T.(2009) Lee W. Jürgen Kreuzer. E. C. J. Xu W. Colomb. Soc.( SPIE Vol. Opt. 2009) Lohmann A. Vol. 2006) Kreis Th. 1 (2011) Lihong Ma. Liebling. SPIE 3098 (1997) 224– 233.. Computer Generated Holograms. Kim. Progress in Optics. (Springer Verlag. Aili Qin. Depeursinge.”Digital holographic microscopy: a non invasive contrast imaging technique allowing quantitative visualization of living cells with sub wavelength accuracy”.. and H.. „Autofocusing in Digital Holographic Microscopy‟. Opt.M.2009) M. and Jüptner W. P. 30..Kang X .Engn. W. 16 (1978) 120-232.” Proc. A.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.