You are on page 1of 50

1614Napier)

Heaviside

Fourier

1.1 Fourier
1.1.1
f (t ) T
[ T2 , T2 ]
1f (t ) [ T2 , T2 ]

2 f (t ) [ T2 , T2 ]

f (t ) [ T2 , T2 ]

f (t )

a0
f (t ) (an cos nt bn sin nt )
2 n 1

(1.1)

2
2 T2

, an T f (t ) cos ntdt, (n 0,1,2,)


T
T 2
2 T2
bn T f (t ) sin ntdt, (n 1,2,)
T 2

n n
1 T2
jn t
cn T f (t )e
dt, (n 0,1,2,)
T 2
(1.1)

f (t )

c e

j n t

1 T2
f (t ) T f ( )e jn d e jnt

T n 2

1.1.2

f (t ) (,)

1 f (t )
2f (t ) (,)

| f (t ) | dt
1
j
j t
f (t )
[ f ( )e d ]e d (1.2)

2
f (t )
f (t 0) f (t 0)
2

f (t )
2
f (t ) [ f ( ) sin d ] sin td
0 0
f (t )
2
f (t ) [ f ( ) cosd ] costd
0 0

1, | t | 1
1 f (t )

0
,

Fourier

1
j
jt
f (t )
[ f ( )e d ]e d

2
1 1
jt

[ (cos j sin )d ]e d

2 1
1 1
jt
[ cosd ]e d

sin

(cost j sin t )d

sin cost

d , (t 1)

t 1f (t )
f (1 0) f (1 0) 1

2
2

E
,
|
t
|

;
f (t )
2
0,

1
f (t )
2
1

2
1

[ f ( s)e js ds]e jt d

2E

[ Ee

js

jt

ds]e d

sin(

jt

)e d

2E

sin

cost

1.2 Fourier
1.2.1 Fourier
(1.2)

F ( )

f (t )e

j t

dt

(1.3)

1
j t
f (t )
F ( )e d
(1.4)

2
(1.3) f (t )

F ( ) F [ f (t )]

F ( ) f (t ) (1.4) F ( )

1
f (t ) [ F ( )]

f (t ) F ( )
f (t )
Fs ( )

f (t )
f (t )

f (t ) sin tdt

Fs ( ) sin td

F ( )

f (t )
Fc ( )

f (t )
f (t )

f (t ) cos tdt

Fc ( ) costd

F ( )

f (t ) (0,)
Fourier
f (t ) Fourier

0, t 0;
1 f (t ) t

e , t 0
0 f (t )

F ( )

f (t )e

e e
0

j t

t jt

dt

dt

e
0

( j ) t

1
j
dt
2
2
j

1
jt
f (t )
F
(

)
e
d

2
1 j jt

e
d

2
2
2
1 cos t sin t

d
2
2

1, 0 t 1,
2 f (t )

0, t 1

f (t )

Fs ( )

f (t ) sin tdt

1 cos

f (t )

Fc ( )

f (t ) costdt

1 sin

1.2.2
Fourier

F ( ) f (t )
| F ( ) | f (t )

| F ( ) F ( ) |

1.3 Fourier
1
F2 ( ) [ f 2 (t )] ,
F1 ( ) [ f1 (t )]

[f1 (t ) 2 f (t )] F1 ( ) F2 ( )

F ( ) [ f (t )]

[ F (t )] 2f ( ) [ F (t )] 2f ( )

3
[ f (t t0 )] e j t [ f (t )]
E,0 t ;
1 f (t )

0,

F ( )

f (t )e

j t

dt Ee

j t

E j t 2 E
[
e
]0
e
j

dt

t
2

sin

f (t ) E , | t | ;
2
1
0,

F1 ( )

2E

sin

t
2

F ( ) [ f (t )] [ f1 (t )] e
2
t

j
2E

e
sin

F1 ( )

4
f (t ) (,)
| t | f (t ) 0

[ f (t )] j [ f (t )]
'

f ( k ) (t ) (,)

lim f ( k ) (t ) 0, k 0,1,2,, n 1

|t |

[ f ( n) (t )] ( j ) n

[ f (t )]


dn
n
F
(

j
)
d n

n
[
t
f (t )]

0, t 0,
2 f (t )
( 0)
t
e , t 0
2
[t ( f (t )] [t ( f (t )]

1.21 f (t )

1
F ( )
j


d
1
F ( )
[t ( f (t )] j
d
( j ) 2
2

d
2
F ( )
[t ( f (t )] j
2
d
( j ) 3
2

t g (t )

f (t )dt 0

1
f (t )dt
[ f (t )]
j

2.
,
. ,

,
; ,

.
.

27

, (t=0)
,

i(t). q(t),
0, t 0;
q (t )
1, t 0.
d q (t )
q (t t ) q (t )
i (t )
lim
t 0
dt
t

t0, i(t)=0, q(t),


, q(t).
28

,
q (0 t ) q (0)
1
i (0) lim
lim
t 0
t 0
t
t

.
, (Dirac),
d-: d t 0 t 0

t 0

, ,
, ,
,
, .
29

0 t0
d(t)
1
d (t )
0t
1/

0 t
O
0 t 0
d (t ) lim d (t )

0
t 0

0 0

d (t ) d t lim d (t ) d t lim

dt 1

d-

30

d-1,
d-, d-
d (t)

d-

d (t ) f (t ) d t f (0) d (t t0 ) f (t ) d t f (t0 ) .

f t

d-

31

d-:

F [d (t )] F ( ) d (t ) e jt d t e jt

t 0

d (t)1.

1 it
1
it
d (t ) F [1]
e
d

e
d 2d (t )

2
1 12d ().

F 1 1 e
1

jt

dt s t e js ds 2d .

2F()=2d (),
1
f (t )
2
32

j t

2d ( )e d e

jt

2e

j0t

2d ( 0 )

1
j t
f (t )
F ( )e d

2
1
j0t
j t
j t

2d ( 0 )e d e
e .

0
2
j0t
e 2d ( 0 )

e
e

33

j t

d t 2d ( )

j( 0 ) t

d t 2d ( 0 )

| f (t ) | d t

, , ,
, ,

. ,
, ,f(t) F()

.
34

4 f (t)=sin0t

F ( ) F [ f (t )] e jt sin 0t d t

j0t

e
2j

j0t

jt

1 j( 0 ) t j( 0t
d t (e
e
)d t
2 j

1
2d ( 0 ) 2d ( 0 ) j d ( 0 ) d ( 0 ) .
2j
sin 0t

|F()|

t
35

0, t 0
,
5 u (t )
1, t 0

1
F [u (t )]
d ( ).
j

1
1
F d ( )
j
2
1

1
j t
j d ( ) e d

1
d ( ) e d 2
j t

1 j t
j e d

cos t j sin t
d

1 1 sin t
1 1 sin t

d
d

2 2
2 0

1 1

2 2

36

sin t

2 , t 0
d

2 , t 0

1 1
2 2 0, t 0

1
1 1
F
d ( ) ,
t 0 u (t )
j
2

1 1

2 2 1, t 0

37

1.4
1.
f1 (t ) f 2 (t )

f1 ( ) f 2 (t )d

t f1 (t ) f 2 (t )
f1 (t ) f 2 (t )
f1 (t ) f 2 (t )

f1 ( ) f 2 (t )d

f1 (t ) f 2 (t ) f 2 (t ) f1 (t )
f1 (t ) [ f 2 (t ) f 3 (t )] f1 (t ) f 2 (t ) f1 (t ) f 3 (t )

0, t 0;
0, t 0;
1 f (t )
f (t ) t
1, t 0,
e , t 0.
f1 (t ) f 2 (t )

0,

t 0
t 0
f1 ( ) f 2 (t ) 0 [0, t ]
f1 (t ) f 2 (t )

f1 ( ) f 2 (t )d

1 e

( t )

d e

e (e 1) 1 e
t

e d
0

2.

f1 (t ), f 2 (t ) Fourier
[ f 2 (t )] F2 ( )
)
[ f1 (t )] F1 (

1 [ f1 (t ) f 2 (t )] F1 ( ) F2 ( )

[ F1 ( ) F2 ( )] f1 (t ) f 2 (t )

1
F1 ( ) F2 ( )
2 [ f1 (t ) f 2 (t )]
2

0, t 0

2 u(t )
1, t 0
f (t ) 0, t 0;

t
e
,t 0

F1 ( ) F2 ( )
F1 ( ) F2 ( ) 2 [ f1 (t ) f 2 (t )]

2
2 [u(t ) f 2 (t )]
j

1.5

Fourier

1 g ( ) sin td f (t )
0

sin t ,0 t ;
f (t ) 2

t
0,

g ( ) sin td

f (t )

2 f (t ) g ( )

2
g ( )
f (t ) sin tdt
0

sin t sin tdt

1
[cos(1 )t cos(1 )t ]dt
2 0

sin

2
1

g (t ) h(t ) f ( ) g (t )d

h(t ), f (t ) h(t ), f (t )
g (t )

[ g (t )] G( ) [h(t )] H ( )

[ f (t )] F ( )
f (t ) g (t )

G( ) H ( ) F ( ) G()

H ( )
G ( )
1 F ( )

1
g (t )
2
1

G( )e

j t

H ( ) j t
1 F ( ) e d

3
2

d
y (t ) y (t ) f (t )
2
dt
f (t )

[ y(t )] Y () [ f (t )] F ( )

( j ) Y ( ) Y ( ) F ( )
2

1
Y ( )
F ( )
2
1

1
y (t )
2
1

Y ( )e j t d

1
j t
1 2 F ()e d

1
1 |t |
e

2
1
2

1 |t|
1
|t |
y (t ) ( e ) f (t ) f ( )e d
2
2

ax (t ) bx(t ) c x(t )dt h(t )


'

t , a, b, c

[ x(t )] X ( ) [h(t )] H ( )

c
ajX ( ) bX ( )
X ( ) H ( )
j
X ( )

H ( )
b j (a

1
j t
x(t )
X ( )e d

2
1
H ( )
j t

e
d

2 b j (a c )