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Respiratory System

Suhartini drg., M.Biotech Physiology-Biomedic Department Dentistry Faculty of Jember University


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The Respiratory System


The respiratory system works with the cardiovascular system to exchange gases between the air and blood (external respiration) and between blood and tissue fluids (internal respiration). Inspiration and expiration move air in and out of the lungs during breathing. Cellular respiration is the final destination where ATP is produced in cells.
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Respiratory System: Overview


Lungs: exchange surface
75 m2 Thin walled Moist

Ribs & skin protect Diaphragm & ribs pump air

Functions of the Respiratory System


Exchange O2
Air to blood Blood to cells

Exchange CO2
Cells to blood Blood to air

Regulate blood pH Vocalizations Protect alveoli


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Figure 17-1: Overview of external and cellular respiration

Respiratory System: Overview

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Figure 17-2 b: Anatomy Summary

The Respiratory tract

The respiratory tract

The Respiratory Tract


Air is cleansed, warmed, and moistened as it passes the cilia and mucus in the nostrils and nasal cavity. In the nose, the hairs and the cilia act as a screening device. In the trachea, the cilia beat upward, carrying dust and mucus into the pharynx. Exhaled air carries out heat and moisture.
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The Nose
The two nasal cavities are divided by a septum. They contain olfactory cells, receive tear ducts from eyes, and communicate with sinuses. The nasal cavities empty into the nasopharynx.

The Pharynx
The pharynx (throat) is a passageway from the nasal cavities to oral cavities and to the larynx. The pharynx contains the tonsils; the respiratory tract assists the immune system in maintaining homeostasis. The pharynx takes air from the nose to the larynx and takes food from the oral cavity to the esophagus.
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The Larynx
The larynx is a cartilaginous structure lying between the pharynx and the trachea. The larynx houses the vocal cords. A flap of tissue called the epiglottis covers the glottis, an opening to the larynx
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The Trachea
The trachea, supported by C-shaped cartilaginous rings, is lined by ciliated cells, which sweep impurities up toward the pharynx. Smoking destroys the cilia. The trachea takes air to the bronchial tree

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Cilia in the trachea

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The Bronchial
The trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi which lead into the right and left lungs. The right and left primary bronchi divide into ever smaller bronchioles to conduct air to the alveoli.

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The Alveoli
Alveoli are the tiny air sacs of the lungs made up of squamous epithelium and surrounded by blood capillaries. Alveoli function in gas exchange, oxygen diffusing into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide diffusing out. Infant respiratory distress syndrome occurs in premature infants where underdeveloped lungs lack surfactant (thin film of lipoprotein) and collapse.
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Alveoli and Pulmonary Capillaries

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Conduction of Air from Outside to Alveoli


Filter, warm & moisten air Nose, (mouth), trachea, bronchi & bronchioles Huge increase in cross sectional area

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Figure 17-4: Branching of the airways

THE MECHANICS OF respiration

Mechanism of Breathing
During breathing, air moves into the lungs during inspiration (inhalation) from the nose or mouth, then moves out again during expiration (exhalation).

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Pressures
Atmospheric pressure 760 mm Hg Intrapleural pressure 756 mm Hg pressure between pleural layers Intrapulmonary pressure varies, pressure inside lungs

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AIR IS A COMPRESSABLE GAS WHICH OBEYS BOYLES LAW


P1V1 = P2V2 If Volume increases, Pressure must decrease As lungs expand, pressure inside falls

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INSPIRATION
Elevation of ribs expands lungs Lowering of diaphragm by contraction also expands lungs Expansion of lungs causes pressure inside to drop below atmospheric pressure Air rushes in to fill the expanded lungs

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INSPIRATION
Atmosphere

Airways

760 mm Hg 759mm Hg

Pleural Sac

Intrapleural pressure 754 mmHg

Thoracic Wall

Lungs

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Expiration/Exhalation
Muscles relax Volume of thoracic cavity decreases Volume of lungs decreases Intrapulmonary pressure increases (763 mm Hg) Forced expiration is active

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EXPIRATION
Return of ribs to rest position causes diminishing of lung volume Return of diaphragm to rest position also causes diminishing of lung volume Diminishing of lung volume causes pressure in lung to raise to a higher value than atmospheric pressure Air flows out of the lungs
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EXPIRATION
Atmosphere 760 mm Hg

Airways 761 mm Hg Intrapleural pressure 756 mmHg Thoracic Wall Lungs

Pleural Sac

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Expiration

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MUSCLES of RESPIRATION
INSPIRATION Sternocleidomastoid Scalenus External Intercostals Diaphragm EXPIRATION Internal intercostals Abdominals

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BREATHING MUSCLES

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exTERNAL AND inTERNAL RESPIRATION

External Respiration
External respiration is the diffusion of CO2 from pulmonary capillaries into alveolar sacs and O2 from alveolar sacs into pulmonary capillaries.

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EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
Ventilation or breathing: air moved in and out of lungs Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide exchange in the lungs Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide transported by blood to and from tissues Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide between tissue and blood
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INTERNAL RESPIRATION
CELLULAR METABOLISM ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS

AEROBIC OXIDATIVE METABOLISM IN THE MITOCHONDRIA

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Internal Respiration
Internal respiration is the diffusion of O2 from systemic capillaries into tissues and CO2 from tissue fluid into systemic capillaries. Oxyhemoglobin gives up O2, which diffuses out of the blood and into the tissues because the partial pressure of O2 of tissues fluid is lower than that of the blood.
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EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL RESPIRATION


ATMOSPHERE

SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION

HEART

TISSUE CELL O2 + FOOD

PULMONARY CIRULATION

LUNGS

CO2 + H2O + ATP


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External and internal respiration

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GAS EXCHANGE

PARTIAL PRESSURES
In a mixture of gasses, the total pressure distributes among the constituents proportional to their percent of the total The concentration of a gas can therefore be expressed as its partial pressure

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Partial Pressures in air


Oxygen = 21%

Nitrogen = 79%

Po2

= 160 mm Hg

PN2 = 600 mm Hg Total Pressure = 760mm Hg

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DEAD SPACE VOLUME


At the height of expiration, about 150ml of gas still occupies the respiratory tree This old gas is necessarily mixed with the incoming fresh air and further lowers the PO2 to about 100 mmHg

Partial Pressures
Oxygen is 21% of atmosphere 760 mmHg x .21 = 160 mmHg PO2 This mixes with old air already in alveolus to arrive at PO2 of 105 mmHg

Partial Pressures
Carbon dioxide is .04% of atmosphere 760 mmHg x .0004 = .3 mm Hg PCO2 This mixes with high CO2 levels from residual volume in the alveoli to arrive at PCO2 of 40 mmHg

Gas Exchange
Partial Pressure
Each gas in atmosphere contributes to the entire atmospheric pressure, denoted as P

Gases in liquid
Gas enters liquid and dissolves in proportion to its partial pressure

O2 and CO2 Exchange by DIFFUSION


PO2 is 105 mmHg in alveoli and 40 in alveolar capillaries PCO2 is 45 in alveolar capillaries and 40 in alveoli

GAS EXCHANGE ACROSS PULMONARY / SYSTEMIC CAPILLARIES

Both oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse down their concentration (partial pressure) gradients
PULMONARY/SYSTEMIC CAPILLARIES

Inspired Air PO2 = 160mmHg PCO2 = 0.03mmHg

LUNG PO2 = 100mmHg PCO2 = 40mmHg

PO2 = 40mmHg PCO2 = 46mmHg

PO2 = 100mmHg PCO2 = 40mmHg

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GAS EXCHANGE ACROSS SYSTEMIC CAPILLARIES Both oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse down their concentration (partial pressure) gradients

TISSUE PO2 < 40mmHg PCO2 > 46mmHg

SYSTEMIC CAPILLARIES PO2 = 40mmHg PCO2 = 46mmHg

PO2 = 100mmHg PCO2 = 40mmHg

Most CO2 is carried as bicarbonate ions.

The enzyme carbonic anhydrase, in red blood cells, speeds up the conversion of bicarbonate and H+ to H2O and CO2; CO2 enters alveoli and is exhaled.
Hemoglobin (Hb) takes up oxygen from alveoli and becomes oxyhemoglobin (HbO2).
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After CO2 diffuses from tissue cells into the blood, it enters red blood cells where a small amount is taken up by hemoglobin, forming carbaminohemoglobin.

CO2 + Hb => HbCO2

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Lung volumes and capacities

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LUNG VOLUMES
Tidal Volume (TV): 500 ml Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV): 3 liters

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV): 1 liter Residual volume (RV): 1.2 liters

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LUNG CAPACITY: RELATIONSHIPS


IC = IRV + TV FRC = ERV + RV VC = IRV + TV + ERV TLC = VC + RV
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LUNG VOLUMES & CAPACITY

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Lung Volumes: Spirometer Measurements


Tidal volume:
Inspiratory reserve Expiratory reserve Residual Vital capacity

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Lung Volumes: Spirometer Measurements

Figure 17-12: The recording spirometer

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Controls of respiration

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RESPIRATORY CONTROL

Pons: Pneumotactic center


Fine tuning over medullary centers Switches off inspiration Fine tuning over medullary centers Blocks switching off of inspiritory neurons Inspiratory neurons Pacemaker activity Expiration occurs when these cease firing Both inspiratory and expiratory neurons Inactive during normal quiet breathing Rev up inspiratory activity when demands for ventilation are high

Pons: Apneustic center Medulla: Dorsal respiratory group

Medulla: Ventral respiratory group


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Controls of rate and depth of respiration


Arterial PO2
When PO2 is VERY low, ventilation increases

Arterial PCO2
The most important regulator of ventilation, small increases in PCO2, greatly increases ventilation

Arterial pH
As hydrogen ions increase, alveolar ventilation increases, but hydrogen ions cannot diffuse into CSF as well as CO2

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REGULATORY OF RESPIRATION:
ACID_BASE BALANCE

Respiratory diseases

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Factors Affecting Ventilation


Airway Resistance Diameter Mucous blockage Bronchoconstriction Bronchodilation Alveolar compliance
Surfactants Surface tension

Alveolar elasticity
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Figure 17-2e: Anatomy Summary

Resistance and Disease


Colds Asthma: Constriction of small airways, excess mucus, and histamine-induced edema Bronchitis: Long term inflamitory response causing thickened walls and overproduction of mucous Emphysema: Collapse of smaller airways and breakdown of alveolar walls Alveolar surface tension
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