Industrial and Organizational Psychology Introduction to the World of Work

Copyright Paul E. Spector, All rights reserved, March 15, 2005

WHAT IS I/O PSYCHOLOGY? • • • • • • • • Psychology is the science of human behavior I/O psychology is the science of human behavior at work Dual focus Efficiency/productivity of organizations Health/well-being of employees Dual nature Application of the science of psychology to the workplace Development/discovery of scientific psychological principles at work .

SPECIFIC AREAS OF CONCERN • • • • • • • • • • • • Recruiting and selecting employees for jobs Training employees Assessing performance Defining and analyzing jobs Determining people feel about work Determining why people act as they do at work Effects work has on people Effects people have on one another How organizations are structured and function Designing work Designing tools and equipment Employee Health and Safety .

D.siop.I/O AS A PROFESSION • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Graduate degree necessary (MA or Ph. Dissertation Qualifying exam Internship.) Content of graduate training Basic psychology Research methods (heavy emphasis) I/O content Employment Little or no unemployment Academic and nonacademic market strong Field expanding and becoming popular . practica Entry requirements very competitive SIOP website for most US programs (www.

Percentage of I/O Psychologists Who Work in Various Settings in 1960 and 2001 Setting Consulting firms Government Private companies Universities Other 2001 32% 7% 15% 38% 8% 1960 28% 11% 35% 26% Note: Trend away from private companies in favor of consulting firms and academia. .

J. D. Source: Katkowski.000 $90.000 $77.D.D. level and being younger.000 $200.000 $60.000 $100. . G.000 $93. (2001).A. A. Ph..A. Men Women $67.000 or more $73.Mean Salaries of I/O Psychologists in the US in 2000 M. & Medsker.000 Note: Gender difference mostly accounted for by women being more likely to be M. Top 10% Professors Companies New Ph.

I/O PSYCHOLOGY AROUND THE WORLD • At one time I/O was almost entirely American • I/O interest has exploded over the past 10-15 years and accelerating • American consulting firms have become international. reflected in names – DDI--Developmental Decisions Inc. to International • Number of graduate programs increasing rapidly around the world . to International – PDI--Personnel Decisions Inc.

Countries With the Most I/O Graduate Programs Country Number of programs Country Number of programs U.S. Germany Australia Canada England Belgium China Netherlands 124 11 7 7 7 5 5 5 France New Zealand Spain Turkey Korea Nigeria Puerto Rico 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 .

performance appraisal . job stress. job stress. values Career development. shift work. leadership Employee selection. job stress. motivation Gender. turnover Job Stress. job stress. organizational level Career development. job satisfaction. motivation. leadership. motivation. performance appraisal. leadership. employee selection. work environment Job satisfaction. Employee selection. gender. training. motivation.The Most Popular I/O Research Topics in Eight Countries Country Canada England Germany India Israel Japan Scandinavia United States Topics Career development. leadership. unemployment Career development. job stress.

History of I/O • • • • • • • Began early 1900s World War I first mass testing Between wars psychology helping business: I side Hawthorne studies impact of social aspects: O side World War II: Psychology and the war effort Civil rights movement: Job relevance Technological change .

Leading Historical Figures • • • • • • • Hugo Münsterberg: Psychology and Industrial Efficiency Walter Dill Scott: The Theory of Advertising Frederick Winslow Taylor: Scientific Management Robert Yerkes: Army Alpha and Beta tests Lillian Gilbreth: Time and motion. Human factors Bruce V. Moore: First I/O PhD? Roethlisberger & Dickson: Hawthorne Studies .

Timeline of Major Events .

other areas of psychology . engineering.Prospects for I/O Field • Rapidly growing – New areas/topics – Attracting more graduate students – More graduate programs – More psychologists in the world • Job market strong: Academic and applied • Area of psychology making an impact on the world – Relevant to anyone who works • Interdisciplinary connections – Business. health fields.

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