You are on page 1of 28

Introduction to Knowledge Management

Matthew Rees
Business Transformation Manager

March 2005
Contents
• Knowledge and Knowledge Management
• Benefits
• KM in Local Government
• KM in Lambeth

2 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
This is what we mean by “knowledge”
• Knowledge is what people use to make
decisions, such as whether to approve a grant
application, or which action to take next.
• Knowledge may reside in people’s heads
(expertise), information systems (data) or
documents (information).
• Knowledge can be created (innovation), moved
(shared) and destroyed.

3 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
Knowledge can be managed directly
and indirectly
• Knowledge Management is, simply, the
management of knowledge as a valuable
resource in its own right.
• The management can be direct, e.g. by
embedding knowledge tools and techniques
(such as training courses and post project
reviews) into working procedures, or it can be
indirect, e.g. by fostering an environment where
the required knowledge activities (creation or
sharing) are encouraged.

4 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
Most tasks involve a combination of
expertise, information and data

How to handle unusual situations

Regulations and policies that apply
Expertise
The procedure to follow

Customer’s details
Information
Amount of the benefit

Data Closing date

5 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
The human element grows as
knowledge becomes more complex

We are more likely to see IT systems
nt
me

managing low-level knowledge, e.g.
information about our customers,
ele

such as the books they have
Expertise
n

borrowed from the library,
ma

and more likely to see
hu

humans managing
ing

Information high-level knowledge,
as

e.g. the needs of an
re

individual child.
Inc

Data

6 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
Knowledge solutions often use a mix of
IT systems and human processes

Human processes

Expertise
Where to draw
this line?
Information
IT systems
Data

7 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
A simple framework is used to show
where knowledge can be held

One/few Many
Explicit
objects objects

Tacit One/few Many
people people

Individual Community

8 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
These examples show that knowledge
is held in different places for a reason

Recipe for Safety
Explicit digestive Checks
biscuits Manual

Tacit New chess How to
move ride a bike

Individual Community

9 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
Knowledge originates in the brain of
one person; this is “discovery” or
“invention”

10 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
Familiar tools move knowledge to where
it is needed, often in multiple steps

l i s h
One/few Pub Many
Explicit
objects ch objectsRe
e r
rit
e a a d
s
W

Re
c Many
h
Tea
Tacit
people

Individual Community

11 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
Knowledge Management builds on
Information Management
• Information is one element of knowledge
and Information Management is one of
the tools within Knowledge Management.
• Information Management is limited to
Information Systems (IT and physical) but
Knowledge Management also includes
knowledge in people’s heads.
• Information Management is necessary
but it is not enough by itself.
12 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
Contents
• Knowledge and Knowledge Management
• Benefits
• KM in Local Government
• KM in Lambeth

13 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
There are several reasons for adopting
Knowledge Management
• The knowledge tools used currently are
not always the most appropriate ones:
– Information Overload (inefficient)
– “Why didn’t I know that?” (ineffective)
• Missing or inaccurate knowledge leads to
poor decision-making.
• Opportunities to innovate are missed.

14 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
A parable helps to make the point
(this is using a KM tool to promote KM)
“A farmer went out to sow. As he sowed, some
seeds fell by the roadside, and the birds came
and devoured them. Others fell on rocky ground,
where they didn't have much soil, and
immediately they sprang up, because they had no
depth of earth. When the sun had risen, they were
scorched. Because they had no root, they
withered away. Others fell among thorns. The
thorns grew up and choked them. Others fell on
good soil, and yielded fruit: some one hundred
times as much, some sixty, and some thirty.”
15 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
Knowledge Management projects have
delivered real benefits

16 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
Contents
• Knowledge and Knowledge Management
• Benefits
• KM in Local Government
• KM in Lambeth

17 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
The Local Government e-Organisation
is a framework for eGovernment
Understanding the e-Organisation

To help your council understand the whole picture,
analyse your current position and build future
strategies, we have developed a model of the
‘building blocks’ that comprise a successful e-
enabled organisation.

These blocks can be organised into six themes –
people, enablers, trust & connections, core systems,
access channels and interactions.

These blocks cover not only the key technologies
necessary, but also the ways in which you and your
citizens or customers interact and the issues to
consider if you are to lead and manage the changes
your council will have to make to exploit e-
government to the full.

http://www.localegov.gov.uk/

18 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
Knowledge Management is one of the
e-Organisation enablers

Enablers

Enablers refers to the computer systems, or ‘middle-ware’,
used to support access channel policy and provide the link
to core business and information systems.

For example, systems for dealing with the customer and
improving the knowledge management and workflow of
corporate information can support better intelligence-led
decision making on services and policies.

19 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
The Knowledge Management National
Project has 7 distinct workstreams
• Workstream one being the KM Road Map, which create a road map for the guidance of all
other organisations and partnerships embarking on the knowledge management activity.
• Workstream two being the Information asset register and single information database,
which is the development of a toolkit which will support local authorities to create their own
information asset register and single information database including an appropriate GIS.
• Workstream three being a Comprehensive Performance Analysis (CPA) Improvement
planning activity that will create a process to use data and information sources in order to
assist local authorities and partnerships to raise their standards of performance and register a
high level of achievement within the various assessment and audit processes including CPA.
• Workstream four being a Customer Facing programme that will raise the service standards
and develop effective links between data and information stores within our organisations and
partnerships as well as access by the community in facilitated service environments.
• Workstream five being a Tacit Knowledge exploitation activity, which will develop tools to
exploit otherwise undeclared knowledge held by staff and groups of staff within organisations.
• Workstream six being a proof of concept activity focusing on strengthening communities in
rural areas, which will develop a toolkit to assist organisations to share and analyse
information, so that they have the knowledge to support and strengthen rural communities.
• Workstream seven being a programme to link community engagement with Policy
development through the creation of processes for linking citizens to policy development at
a very early stage in this development within stand alone authorities, multi agency partnerships
and community based working environments.

20 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
The KM National Project website is
http://www.knowledgemanagement.org.uk

21 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
Contents
• Knowledge and Knowledge Management
• Benefits
• KM in Local Government
• KM in Lambeth

22 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
Lambeth has adopted a pragmatic
approach to Knowledge Management
• Raising awareness of Knowledge Management
(e.g. through this presentation).
• Piloting Knowledge Management tools and
techniques on specific projects.
• Integrating Knowledge Management into other
transformation processes, e.g. BPR and CM.
• Working with other Local Authorities through
the Knowledge Management National Project.
• Producing toolkits that address specific
business needs.
23 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
The toolkits guide practitioners to the
appropriate tools for a given situation

There are several hundred
Knowledge Management tools and
techniques available.

A series of simple models reduces
this list to just a few tools that are
appropriate for a specific situation.

24 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
We use a framework derived from the
degree of service and process change

Service
Degree of service change

Improvement Innovation
(effectiveness)
Process
Business
Improvement
As Usual
(efficiency)
Degree of process change

25 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
The four quadrants in the framework
have distinct business characteristics
• Innovation, where the objective is to deliver a
step-change in services and the way that they
are delivered.
• Business As Usual, where the objective is to
deliver a consistent service while other factors,
such as staffing, are changing.
• Process Improvement, where the objective is
to deliver the same service more efficiently.
• Service Improvement, where the objective is
to deliver improved services without changing
the way that the services are delivered.
26 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
KM toolkits are being developed to
address these different business needs

Service
Consulting with
Degree of service change

Customers
Improvement Innovation
Communication
(effectiveness) & Collaboration

Knowledg Process
Skills
Business
e Sharing Improvement
Information Location
As UsualManagement
(efficiency)
Degree of process change

27 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005
For example, these are some of the
tools in the Knowledge Sharing toolkit
• Team Meetings • Notice boards
• Workplace Training • Intranet
• Work shadowing • Shared files
• Exit Interviews • Search engine
• Post Action Reviews • FAQs
• User Guides • Email
• Lunch ‘n’ Learn • etc. etc.

28 Introduction to KM – Matthew Rees – March 2005